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Stoneflies - Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae of Gunnison County, Colorado

Plumiperla diversa Margined Sallfly

(Frison) 1935
Updated 12 Jan 21
TSN 103306


Small and yellow green

Life History

Dewalt and Stewart (1995) did not collect any adults in 3 years of research. Nymphs were distinctive and identifiable to genus by March. Males and Females were distinguishable at this time. Growth continued until May when females attained a head capsule width about 10 percent larger that males. They have a univoltine - slow life cycle in the Rio Conejes river in southern Colorado. Kondratieff and Baumann note P. diversa is usually associated with Sweltsa lamba and Sweltsa borealis Adults can be found into late September and early October.


Was named Triznaka diversa and Alloperla diversa.

Good Links

Adult Photo by Riley Nelson from the Tree of Life

Photos, Map, Museum specimens, DNA - Barcodinglife.org


Baumann,RW, Gaufin,AR and Surdick,RF 1977 The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 31, 1-208. Page 188.
     As Triznaka diversa.

DeWalt,RE and Stewart,KW 1995 Life histories of stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the Rio Conejos of southern Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 55, 1-18. PDF

Frison,TH 1935 New North American species of the genus Alloperla (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society (61)331-344.
     Described as Alloperla diversa.

Hassage,RL 1989 Life histories, behavior and space partitioning in selected species of western North American Plecoptera. pHd Dissertation, University of North Texas. 105pgs. PDF
     Abstract: "Five species of stoneflies (Zapada haysi, Plumiperla diversa, Taenionema pacificum, Isoperla petersoni, Arcynopteryx compacta) from the North Slope and Interior of Alaska were examined for seasonal patterns of emergence of adults and growth of nymphs. Generally growth was retarded during the winter in this region, and all species except I. petersoni completed growth prior to January. The life cycles of six stonefly species (Prostoia besametsa, Triznaka signata, Sweltsa coloradensis, Isoperla fulva, Skwala parallela, Claassenia sabulosa) are described from northern New Mexico. In this region growth was generally less retarded during the winter than in Alaska; P. besametsa completed all nymphal growth during late fall and winter. Drumming behavior of a Colorado population of Pteronarcella badia was described using an evolutionary framework to explain the maintenance of signal variation in this species. Laboratory experiments were used to explore the effect of intraspecific and interspecific interactions on spatial partitioning in P. badia and Claassenia sabulosa. P. badia exhibited clumping and distributed itself as the surface area of substrate in low densities; however, in the presence of C. sabulosa its distribution was random and different from available surface area. A field study was used to examine spatial partitioning by three New Mexico stonefly species (I. fulva, P. besametsa, T. signata) and to ascertain patterns of microdistribution relating to several abiotic and biotic factors. Generally, there was an interaction of the measured abiotic parameters (current, water temperature, time) with nymphal size. Additionally, void space and sample volume were successfully used to compare biotic densities among leaf and mineral substrates, which were higher in leaf packs than in mineral substrates."

Kondratieff,BC and Baumann,RW 2002 A review of the stoneflies of Colorado with description of a new species of Capnia (Plecoptera: Capniidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 128 3, 385-401.
     Quoted from page 393: "This small yellow-green chloroperlid is often abundant in smaller high-elevation streams of the Mountain and Plateau regions. Plumiperla diversa is usually assiciated with S. lamba and S. borealis. Adults can be found into late September or even early October."

Radford,DS and Hartland-Rowe,R 1971 Emergence patterns of some Plecoptera in two mountain streams in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 49(5), 657-662.
     Discussed as Alloperla diversa

Stewart,KW and Ricker,WE 1997 The stoneflies of the Yukon. pgs 201-222 in Danks,HV and Downes,JA (Eds.), Insects of the Yukon. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa. 1034 pp.
     Quote about the genus Plumiperla from page 213: "Transberingian; P. spinosa is endemic to California; P. diversa is widespread from Alaska and Yukon to California and New Mexico, and occurs in streams of Kamchatka Peninsula (Levanidova 1982). Adults are light yellow with no head markings, 6-8 mm. They emerge from May in the southern Rocky Mountains to as late as September in Alaska (Stewart et al. 1990) and Yukon. Nymphs occur in springs and streams of all sizes, and the life cycle in northern latitudes appears to be univoltine, fast."

Stewart,KW; Hassage,RL; Holder,SJ and Oswood,MW 1990 Life cycles of six stonefly species (Plecoptera) in subarctic and arctic Alaska streams. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83(2)207-214.
     Abstract: Nymphal growth and emergence of adults are described for six species of stoneflies (Plecoptera) found in subarctic and arctic Alaska. The two Nemouridae studied are semivoltine; adults of Zapada haysi (Ricker) are present from May to July and adults of Nemoura arctica Esben-Petersen occur from June to July. The remaining four species are univoltine. Plumiperla diversa (Frison) (Chloroperlidae) has most of its growth occurring during the summer with emergence the following May-September. Taenionema pacificum (Banks) (Taeniopterygidae) completes nymphal growth by the end of January and has an early emergence (April-June). Adults of Arcynopteryx compacta (McLachlan) (Perlodidae) are present from May to August, and growth of nymphs is rapid during summer and fall. Isoperla petersoni Needham ∓ Christenson (Perlodidae) adults are present from June to mid-August, and nymphal growth is interrupted by winter and resumes in the spring; the three other univoltine species studied tend to complete growth before the onset of winter. Growth of these six species is tied to seasonal temperature variation.

Stewart,KW and Stark,BP 2002: Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera. 2nd edition The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio. 510 pages. Illustrations of nymph on pages 270-271, figures 11.13-11.14

Brown, Wendy S. 2004 Plecopter of Gunnison County, Colorado