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Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae of Gunnison County, Colorado


Flat Headed Mayflies, Clingers

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Allan,JD 1981 Determinants of diet of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a mountain stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38, 184-192. PDF

Allan,JD 1987 Macroinvertebrate drift in a Rocky Mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 144, 261-268.

Allan,JD and Feifarek,BP 1988 Prey preference in stoneflies: a comparative analysis of prey vulnerability. Oecologia, 76(4), pp.496-503.

Allan,JD and Feifarek,BP 1989 Distances travelled by drifting mayfly nymphs: factors influencing return to the substrate. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 8 4, 322-330.

Allan,JD; Flecker,AS; McClintock,NL 1986 Diel epibenthis activity of mayfly nymphs, and its nonconcordance with behavioral drift. Limnology and Oceanography 31 5, 1057-1065. PDF

Carlisle,DM; Clements,WH 2003 Growth and secondary production of aquatic insects along a gradient of Zn contamination in Rocky Mountain streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22 (4) 582-597. PDF

Dodds,GS 1923 Mayflies from Colorado: descriptions of certain species and notes on others. Transactions of American Entomological Society 69, 93-116. PDF

Dodds GS and Hisaw FL. 1925. Ecological studies on aquatic insects. IV. Altitudinal range and zonation of mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies in the Colorado Rockies. Ecology 6(4)380-390. Abstract PDF

Edmunds,GF; Allen,RK 1964 The Rocky Mountain species of Epeorus (Iron) Eaton (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 37 4, 275-288.

Edmunds Jr.,GF; Jensen,SL; Berner,L 1976 The Mayflies of North and Central America. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 330 pages pages.

Flecker,AS; Allan,JD; McClintock,NL 1988 Male body size and mating sucess in swarms of the mayfly Eperorus longimanus. Holarctic Ecology 11 4, 280-285.

Herrmann,J; Andersson,KG 1986 Aluminum impact on respiration of lotic mayflies at low pH. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 30, 703-709.

Jensen,SL 1966 The Mayflies of Idaho (Ephemeroptera). M.S. Thesis, University of Utah, Utah. 364 p.

Jensen SL; Edmunds GF Jr. 1973 Some phylogenetic relationships within the Heptageniidae. Pages 82-87 in W. L. Peters & J. G. Peters, eds., Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ephemeroptera, E. J. Brill, Leiden.

Kashian DR; Prusha BA and Clements WH. 2004 Influence of total organic carbon and UV-B radiation on zinc toxicity and bioaccumulation in aquatic communities. Environmental Science & Technology. 38(23):6371-6376.
     Abstract: "The effects of total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-B radiation on Zn toxicity and bioaccumulation in a Rocky Mountain stream community were assessed in a 10-d microcosm experiment. We predicted that TOC would mitigate Zn [zinc] toxicity and that the combined effects of Zn and UV-B would be greater than Zn alone. However, TOC did not mitigate Zn toxicity in this study. In fact, treatments with TOC plus Zn had significantly lower community respiration as compared with the controls and Zn concentrations associated with the periphyton increased in the presence of TOC. UV-B had no additive effect on periphyton Zn accumulation or community respiration. Heptageniid mayflies (Ephemeroptera) were particularly sensitive to Zn, and reduced abundances were observed in all Zn treatments. UV-B did not additionally impact Heptageniid abundances; however UV-B did have a greater effect on macroinvertebrate drift than Zn alone. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (groups typically classified as sensitive to disturbance) were found in highest numbers in the drift of UV-B + Zn treatments. Measures of Zn accumulation in the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis, periphyton biomass, and total macroinvertebrate abundance were not sufficiently sensitive to differentiate effects of TOC, UV-B, and Zn. These results indicate that UV-B and TOC affect Zn bioavailability and toxicity by impacting species abundance, behavior, and ecosystem processes. "

Kiffney,PM; Clements,WH 1994 Effects of heavy metals on a macroinvertebrate assemblage from a Rocky Mountain stream in experimental microcosms. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13 4, 511-523.

Knopp,M; Cormier,R 1997 Mayflies: An anglers study of trout water Ephemeroptera. Lyons Press, Guilford, CT. 366 pages.

Lehmkuhl,DM 1968 Observations on the life histories of four species of Epeorus in western Oregon (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 44(2):129-137. PDF

Lugo-Ortiz,CR; McCafferty,WP 1995 Annotated inventory of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Arizona. Entomological News 106 3, 131-140.

McIntosh,AR; Peckarsky,BL; Taylor,BW 2002 The influence of predatory fish on mayfly drift: extrapolating from experiments to nature. Freshwater Biology 47, 1497-1513.

Peckarsky,BL 1988 Why predaceous stoneflies do not aggregate with their prey. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie Verhandlungen 23, 2135-2140.

Peckarsky,BL 1991 Is there a coevolutionary arms race between predators and prey? A case study with stoneflies and mayflies. Advances in Ecology 1, 167-180.

Peckarsky,BL 1996 Alternative predator avoidance syndromes of stream-dwelling mayfly larvae. Ecology 77 6, 1888-1905.

Peckarsky,BL; Cowan,CA 1995 Microhabitat and activity periodicity of predatory stoneflies and their mayfly prey in a western Colorado stream. Oikos 74 3, 513-521.

Rackliffe,DR and Hoverman,JT 2020 Population-level variation in neonicotinoid tolerance in nymphs of the heptageniidae. Environmental Pollution, p.114803. html
     The authors studied several genera of Heptageniidae not found in Colorado. Tolerances for neonicotinoid pesticides varied not only between genera, but also between populations of the same species in different locations. Quote from the abstract: "Our data suggest that populations of Heptageniidae mayflies can vary substantially in neonicotinoid tolerance. Population-level variation should be considered in toxicity assessments and presents the potential for evolved tolerance."

Wang,T.-Q and McCafferty,WP 2004. Heptageniidae (Ephemeroptera) of the world. Part I: Phylogenetic higher classification. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 130(1): 11-45.
     Abstract: "Twenty-nine monophyletic species groups based on the study of nearly 200 species of the Ephemeroptera family Heptageniidae from North and Central America, Africa, Eurasia, and Southeast Asia were subjected to cladistic analysis in order to hypothesize their interrelationships and produce a framework for a strict phylogenetic higher classification for the family. As a result, three sequentially derived major clades are recognized as the subfamilies Ecdyonurinae, Heptageniinae, and Rhithrogeninae. The Ecdyonurinae is divided into four tribes: the Ecdyonurini, containing the genera Nixe Flowers and Ecdyonurus Eaton; the Leucrocutini, n. trib., containing the genera Siberionurus McCafferty and Leucrocuta Flowers; the Notacanthurini, n. trib., containing the genera Notacanthurus Tshernova and Electrogena Zurwerra and Tomka; and the Atopopini, n. trib., containing the genera Afronurus Lestage [=Cinygmina Kimmins, n. syn.], Asionurus Braasch and Soldán, Thalerosphyrus Eaton [=Compsoneuriella Ulmer, n. syn.; =Notonurus Crass, n. syn.], and Atopopus Eaton. The Heptageniinae is divided into four tribes: the Compsoneuriini, n. trib., containing the genera Compsoneuria Eaton and Trichogenia Braasch and Soldán; the Heptageniini, containing the genera Heptagenia Walsh, Dacnogenia Kluge, n. stat., and Raptoheptagenia Whiting and Lehmkuhl; the Kageroniini, n. trib., containing the genera Kageronia Matsumura [=Parastenacron Kluge, n. syn.] and Stenacron Jensen; and the Stenonematini, n. trib., containing the genera Macdunnoa Lehmkuhl, Maccaffertium Bednarik, n. stat., and Stenonema Traver. The Rhithrogeninae is divided into four tribes: the Rhithrogenini, containing the genera Paegniodes Eaton, Rhithrogena Eaton [=Rhithrogeniella Ulmer, n. syn.], and Cinygmula McDunnough [=Epeiron Demoulin, n. syn.; =Ororotsia Traver, n. syn.]; the Cinygmatini, containing the genus Cinygma Eaton [=Cinygmoides Matsumura, n. syn.]; the Epeorini, n. trib., containing the genera Bleptus Eaton, Ironodes Traver, and Epeorus Eaton [=Epeorella Ulmer, n. syn.]; and the Anepeorini, containing the genera Anepeorus McDunnough [=Acanthomola Whiting and Lehmkuhl, n. syn.] and Spinadis Edmunds and Jensen. The nomenclatural history of the higher classification of the family, bases for the new classification and synonymies, and the biogeography and evolution of the genera are discussed."

Wang,T-Q; McCafferty,WP 1995 Relationships of Arthropleidae, Heptageniidae, and Pseudironidae (Ephemeroptera:Heptagenioidea). Entomological News 106 5, 251-256.

Ward,JV; Stanford,JA 1990 Ephemeroptera of the Gunnison River, Colorado, USA. In: Mayflies and Stoneflies. Ed: Campbell,IC Kluwer Academic Publishers,, 215-220.

Webb,JM 2007 Diversity and identification of heptageniid mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) of the world (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University).

Zuellig,RE; Kashian,DR; Brooks,ML; Kiffney,PM and Clements,WH 2008 The influence of metal exposure history and ultraviolet-B radiation on benthic communities in Colorado Rocky Mountain streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27(1), 120-134. PDF

Brown,WS 2004 Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA

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