Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Ephemerella inermis Eaton, 1884
Pale Morning Dun, PMD, Pale Olive Quill
Updated 19 Nov 2008
This mayfly is talked about in many books and scientific papers from the late 20th century. However, it was synonymized (merged taxonomically) with Ephemerella excrucians Walsh, 1862. We should stop referring to this scientific name!
On this website:
Argyle,DW; Edmunds,GF 1962 Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of the Curecanti Reservoir Basins Gunnison River, Colorado. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 59 8, 178-189.
Quote from page 187: "This is the most widespread species in the entire drainage. The nymphs were collected from all of the streams and all but a few of the collection stations. All specimens of this species complex are being studied by R.K. Allen and G.F. Edmunds who are attempting to revise this taxonomically difficult complex. One specimen seems to be different from the other nymphs collected."
Gilpin,BR and Brusven,MA 1970 Food habits and ecology of mayflies of the St. Maries River in Idaho. Melanderia 4:19-40. PDF
Jacobus,LM and McCafferty,WP 2003 Revisionary contributions to North American Ephemerella and Serratella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 111:174-193. PDF
Johnson,SC 1978 Larvae of Ephemerella inermis and E. infrequens (Ephemeroptera:Ephemerellidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 54, 19-25.
After the Ephemerella revision by Jacobus and McCafferty in 2003, this paper could be titled "Larvae of Ephemerella excrucians and E. dorthea infrequens."
McCafferty,WP; Durfee,RS; Kondratieff,BC 1993 Colorado mayflies (Ephemeroptera): an annotated inventory. Southwestern Naturalist 38 3, 252-274. PDF
Quote from page 266: "This evidently is one of the most common ephemerellids in Colorado; however it is easily confused with E. infrequens McDunnough, and caution must be taken in distinguishing the larvae of the two species (see Johnson 1978)."
Needham JG. 1927 The Rocky Mountain species of the mayfly genus Ephemerella. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 20:107-117.
Describes the nymphs.