Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Introduction to the mayfly genus Drunella Needham 1905
Updated 20 Feb 2015
Drunella grandis grandis
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Allan,JD 1985 The production ecology of Ephemeroptera in a Rocky Mountain stream. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie Verhandlungen 22, 3233-3237.
Allan,JD 1987 Macroinvertebrate drift in a Rocky Mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 144, 261-268.
Allen,RK 1984 A new classification of the subfamily Ephemerellinae and the description of a new genus. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 60, 245-247.
Allen,RK and Edmunds,GF 1962 A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). V. The subgenus Drunella in North America. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 3, 147-179. PDF
Colburn,T 1982a Aquatic insects as measures of trace element presence in water: Cadmium and Molybdenum. Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Fith Conference, ASTM STP 766, J.G. Pearson, R.B. Foster, and W.E. Bishop, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, pgs 316-325.
Colburn,T 1982b Measurement of low levels of molybdenum in the environment by using aquatic insects. 29, 422-428.
Dahl,J and Peckarsky,BL 2002. Induced morphological defenses in the wild: predator effects on a mayfly, Drunella coloradensis. Ecology 83:1620-1634. PDF
DeWalt,RE; Stewart,KW; Moulton,SR; Kennedy,JH 1994 Summer emergence of mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies from a Colorado mountain stream. Southwestern Naturalist 39 3, 249-256.
Gill,BA; Harrington,RA; Kondratieff,BC; Zamudio,KR; Poff,NL and Funk,WC 2014 Morphological taxonomy, DNA barcoding, and species diversity in southern Rocky Mountain headwater streams. Freshwater Science 33(1) 288-301.
Working in wadeable streams on the Front Range of Colorado, they found Drunella coloradensis, doddsii and grandis, with one cryptic Drunella species.
McCafferty,WP; Wang,T-Q 2000 Phylogenetic systematics of the major lineages of Pannote mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Pannota). Transactions of American Entomological Society 126 1, 9-101.
Mebane,CA; Dillon,FS and Hennessy,DP 2012 Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31(6), 1334-1348. PDF
Needham,JG 1905 Ephemeridae. Bulletin of the New York State Museum 86:17-62, pl. 4-12.
Schmidt,TS; Clements,WH; Zuellig,RE; Mitchell,KA; Church,SE; Wanty,RB, ... and Lamothe,PJ 2011 Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects. Environmental science and Technology, 45(16) 7004-7010. PDF
Abstract: "Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 μg/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 μg/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 μg/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 μg/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion."
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Data Warehouse (NAWQA) shows this genus present in Gunnison County. Data as of 1Sep2005
Winget,RN 1993 Habitat partitioning among three species of Ephemerelloidea. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8 (3) 227-234.
Winget,RN; Mangum,FA 1996 Environmental profile of Drunella coloradensis Dodds (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae) in the Western United States. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 11 2, 225-232.