Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Drunella doddsii Needham, 1927
Green Drake, Western Green Drake, Great Red Spinner, Ginger Quill
Updated 19 Nov 2020small>
Meyers Gulch, West Elk Creek, East Elk Creek (Argyle and Edmunds, 1962). Also common in the Coal Creek, Copper Creek, East River, Slate River, Brush Creek and tributaries.
On this website:
Allan,JD 1987 Macroinvertebrate drift in a Rocky Mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 144, 261-268.
Allen,RK and Edmunds,GF 1962 A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). V. The subgenus Drunella in North America. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 3, 147-179. PDF
Argyle,DW; Edmunds,GF 1962 Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of the Curecanti Reservoir Basins Gunnison River, Colorado. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 59 8, 178-189.
Discussed as Ephemerella doddsi. Quote from page 186: "This species was uncommon in the collection. It is particularly well adapted to the torrential habitat occurring in several streams in this drainage, but was only taken from three collection streams. Most of the specimens may have emerged before the intensive July collections."
Ball,SL; Hebert,PDN; Burian,SK; Webb,JM 2005 Biological identification of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) using DNA barcodes. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24 3, 508-524.
Brinkman,SF and Johnston,WD 2012 Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 62(2), 272-281.
Carlisle,Daren M; Clements,William H 2003 Growth and secondary production of aquatic insects along a gradient of Zn contamination in Rocky Mountain streams. Journal North American Benthological Society 22(4), 582-597. Abstract and entire paper
Clements,WH; Carlisle,DN; Lazorchak,JM; Johnson,PC 2000 Heavy metals structure benthic communities in Colorado mountain streams. Ecological Applications 10(2)626-638. Abstract
Quote from page 632: "In particular, abundance of the mayflies Rhithrogena robusta (Fig. 5b), Cinygmula sp.(Fig. 5c), and Drunella doddsi(Fig. 5d), and the stonefly Sweltsa sp.(Fig. 5e) was significantly lower at medium- and high-metal stations."
Colburn,T 1982a Aquatic insects as measures of trace element presence in water: Cadmium and Molybdenum. Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Fith Conference, ASTM STP 766, J.G. Pearson, R.B. Foster, and W.E. Bishop, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, pgs 316-325.
Colburn,T 1982b Measurement of low levels of molybdenum in the environment by using aquatic insects. 29, 422-428.
Gaufin,AR; Clubb,R and Newell,R 1974 Studies on the tolerance of aquatic insects to low oxygen concentrations. Great Basin Naturalist 34:45-59. PDF
The authors studied the acute short term tolerance of aquatic insects to low oxygen. They used the 96 hour Median Tolerance Limit. They discussed Drunella doddsii as Ephemerella doddsi. The TLm96 for D. doddsii was 5.2mg/l and 46% oxygen saturation.
Gaufin,AR and Hern,S 1971 Laboratory studies on tolerance of aquatic insects to heated waters. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 44:240-245. PDF
Abstract: "The mature larvae of fifteen species of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) and the scud (Amphipoda) were tested to determine their relative sensitivity to heated waters under laboratory conditions. The temperature at which 50% died after 96 hours (TLm96) was recorded as the lethal temperature. This ranged from 11.7 C for the torrential stream mayfly, Cinygmula par Baton, to 32.6 C for the snipefly, Atherix variegata Walker. " They discussed Drunella doddsii as Ephemerella doddsi. The TLm96 for D. doddsii was 15.45°C.
Gilpin,BR and Brusven,MA 1970 Food habits and ecology of mayflies of the St. Maries River in Idaho. Melanderia 4:19-40. PDF
Discussed as Ephemerella (Drunella) doddsi.
Hawkins,CP 1985 Food habits of species of ephemerellid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Insecta) in streams of Oregon. American Midland Naturalist 113(2) 343-352. PDF
Jacobus LM; McCafferty WP 2004 Revisionary contributions to the genus Drunella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 112:127-147. PDF
While variously lumping Drunella species from all over the world, they note there was an early fumble on the name of this mayfly. Even though there are many references to this insect as D. doddsi in the scientific and fishing literature, the authors point out the name really has two ii's at the end, i.e Drunella doddsii. See Needham's description below.
Kiffney,PM; Clements,WH 1994 Effects of heavy metals on a macroinvertebrate assemblage from a Rocky Mountain stream in experimental microcosms. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13 4, 511-523.
Magnum,FA; Winget,RN 1991 Environmental profile of Drunella doddsi (Needham) (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). Journal of Freshwater Ecology 6 1, 11-22.
"Data from 813 stream stations in 11 western states have been analyzed to provide a description of the niche width of Drunella (Eatonella) doddsi Needham. The concept of niche width refers to a species' distribution according to environmental conditions, reflecting environmental tolerances. Drunella doddsi was found over a broad range of elevations, and average minimum stream flows. However, its distribution was highly correlated to streams with moderate to high gradients, coarse substrates, dense riparian vegetation, low to moderate levels of alkalinity, very low levels of sulfates, and low specific conductance. This narrow niche width seems to indicate an intolerance of D. doddsi to many types of environmental conditions. Specific habitat selection also requires competitive prevalence over other species that would utilize that habitat."
Maret,TR; Cain,DJ; MacCoy,DE; Short,TM 2003 Response of benthic invertebrate assemblages to metal exposure and bioaccumulation associated with hard-rock mining in northwestern streams, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22 4, 598-620.
Drunella doddsii, in spite of being in a genus considered sensitive to heavy metals, was found at two of the most contaminated sites in this study.
McCafferty,WP; Durfee,RS; Kondratieff,BC 1993 Colorado mayflies (Ephemeroptera): an annotated inventory. Southwestern Naturalist 38 3, 252-274. PDF
Quote from page 265: "All reports have been as Ephemerella doddsi except for those of Dodds (1923) and Dodds and Hisaw (1925) from Boulder and Gilpin Co. (South Boulder Cr.). Although Eaton (1884) is often credited with the first Colorado record of this common western mayfly (e.g. Traver, 1935), that particular record is actually from Idaho on the Colorado Territory."
McCafferty,WP and Provonsha, AV The Mayflies of North AmericaSpecies List (Version 8Feb2011)
Here is the geographic range and synonyms:
Drunella doddsii (Needham), 1927 [CAN:FN,NW;USA:FN,NW,SW]
* Drunella doddsi (Needham), 1927 (spell.)
* Ephemerella doddsi Needham, 1927 (comb.,spell.)
* Ephemerella doddsii Needham, 1927 (orig.)
Mihuc,TB and Minshall, GW 1995 Trophic generalists vs. trophic specialists: implications for food web dynamics in post-fire streams. Ecology, 76(8), pp.2361-2372.
Abstract: "The trophic ecology of 11 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa found in Cache Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was studied to determine if burned organic matter is an important resource and how resource utilization patterns may be altered in post-fire streams. Laboratory food quality experiments were conducted to determine the growth response of each species when grown on several resource types: burned organic matter, periphyton, unburned coarse particulate material (CPM), and unburned fine particulate material (FPM). The central hypothesis of this research was that benthic macroinvertebrates cannot use burned organic matter as a resource. A secondary hypothesis was that some benthic macroinvertebrates are facultative in trophic function, with the ability to use both allochthonous and autochthonous resources for growth. Of the 11 taxa studied, only one (Paraleptophlebia heteronea) could grow on burned organic matter as a resource, indicating that post-fire food webs probably do not exhibit major shifts in resource utilization to burned material. Two species were generalist detrivores (P. heteronea, Ameletus cooki) able to use both natural FPM and CPM resources. Two species were specialist detritivores (Oligophlebodes sigma, Ephemerella infrequens) growing only on unburned CPM resources, and two (Cinygmula mimus, Epeorus albertae) were specialist herbivores utilizing only periphyton. Five species were generalist herbivore-detritivores (Baetis bicaudatus, Drunella doddsi, D. coloradensis, D. spinifera, Zapada columbiana), exhibiting growth on both detritus and periphyton resources. Based on the experimental results, trophic generalists are common food web components in Yellowstone streams. Two of the most abundant benthic macroinvertebrates during post-fire recovery, B. bicaudatus and Z. columbiana, were trophic generalists, indicating that some generalists may be disturbance adapted. In this study, published functional feeding group classification did not indicate obligate resource utilization (growth on only one resource type) for most taxa studied. Comparison of a food web for Cache Creek based on functional feeding group classification and one based on the results of this study indicates that the inclusion of generalists in the web results in a more realistic approximation of food web relationships such as the link-species scaling law. Our results suggest that future research should include spatial and temporal aspects of resource switching and generalist resource utilization by individual lotic primary consumers."
Needham,JG 1927 The Rocky Mountain species of the mayfly genus Ephemerella. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 20:107-117.
Described as Ephemerella doddsii.
Peckarsky,BL; Encalada,AC and McIntosh,AR 2011 Why do vulnerable mayflies thrive in trout streams?. American Entomologist, 57(3), pp.152-164. PDF
Prusha,BA; Clements,WH 2004 Landscape attributes, dissolved organic C, and metal bioaccumulation in aquatic macroinvertebrates (Arkansas River Basin, Colorado). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23 (2) 327-339.
Abstract: " Relationships among landscape attributes, instream dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations, and metal bioaccumulation in Arctopsyche grandis and Drunella doddsi were investigated in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, Colorado. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to calculate landscape attributes in 16 watersheds where DOC concentrations were measured from May to August 2001. Metal concentrations in Arctopsyche and Drunella were related to physicochemical characteristics measured in these streams and in the Arkansas River. Results of multiple linear regression showed that % forested area explained 47% and 59% of the variation in maximum and mean DOC concentrations, respectively. Maximum DOC was negatively associated with the concentration of Zn (R2 = 0.25) and Cd (R2 = 0.39) in Arctopsyche. DOC concentration did not describe metal concentrations in Drunella, which accumulated significantly more Zn, Cd, and Cu than Arctopsyche. The higher metal concentrations and the absence of a DOC effect on metal uptake in Drunella most likely resulted from dietary exposure to metal-enriched detritus and periphyton. Our results indicate that % forested area within a watershed can be used to describe DOC concentrations, which in turn influence metal bioaccumulation in Arctopsyche. To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify the relationship between landscape attributes and DOC, and to demonstrate the influence of DOC on metal bioaccumulation in benthic macroinvertebrates in the field."
Prusha,B.A., D.R. Kashian, and W.H. Clements. 2004 Effects of total organic carbon and ultraviolet-b radiation on metal accumulation in Arctopsyche grandis and Drunella doddsi from the Upper Arkansas River Basin (Colorado). Presented at the NABS Annual meeting, Athens, Georgia, 2004 in Ecotoxicology http://www.benthos.org/database/allnabstracts.cfm/db/Athens2004abstracts/id/30
Stewart,KW and Szczytko,SW 1983 Drift of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera in two Colorado rivers. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology. 2(3)117-131. PDF
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Data Warehouse (NAWQA) shows this species is present in Gunnison County. Data as of 1Sep2005
Winget,RN 1993 Habitat partitioning among three species of Ephemerelloidea. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8 3, 227-234. PDF