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Ephemeroptera of Gunnison County, Colorado

Introduction to Baetidae
Small Minnow Mayflies, Blue-Winged Olives, BWO

Leach, 1815

Updated 8 Oct 2020
TSN 100755

Provisional Species List

Good Links

On this website:
Baetis introduction
Baetidae nymphs to species
Baetis nymphs to species
Other species that may be present
Centroptilum Introduction
Fallceon quilleri

Other websites:


Allen,RK and Murvosh,CM 1987 New Baetidae from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico (Ephemeroptera: Insecta), with notes. Canadian Entomologist 119, 1095-1099.

Barber-James,HM; Gattolliat,J; Sartori,M and MD Hubbard 2008 Global diversity of mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1) 339-350. DOI:10.1007/s10750-007-9028-y Abstract and Full Text

Cain,DJ; Luoma,SN; Wallace,WG 2004 Linking metal bioaccumulation of aquatic insects to their distribution patterns in a mining-impacted river. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23, 1463-1473. PDF
     Abstract: "Although the differential responses of stream taxa to metal exposure have been exploited for bioassessment and monitoring, the mechanisms affecting these responses are not well understood. In this study, the subcellular partitioning of metals in operationally defined metal-sensitive and detoxified fractions were analyzed in five insect taxa. Samples were collected in two separate years along an extensive metal contamination gradient in the Clark Fork River (MT, USA) to determine if interspecific differences in the metal concentrations of metal-sensitive fractions and detoxified fractions were linked to the differences in distributions of taxa relative to the gradient. Most of the Cd, Cu, and Zn body burdens were internalized and potentially biologically active in all taxa, although all taxa appeared to detoxify metals (e.g., metal bound to cytosolic metal-binding proteins). Metal concentrations associated with metal-sensitive fractions were highest in the mayflies Epeorus albertae and Serratella tibialis, which were rare or absent from the most contaminated sites but occurred at less contaminated sites. Relatively low concentrations of Cu were common to the tolerant taxa Hydropsyche spp. and Baetis spp., which were widely distributed and dominant in the most contaminated sections of the river. This suggested that distributions of taxa along the contamination gradient were more closely related to the bioaccumulation of Cu than of other metals. Metal bioaccumulation did not appear to explain the spatial distribution of the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis, considered to be a bioindicator of metal effects in the river. Thus, in this system the presence/absence of most of these taxa from sites where metal exposure was elevated could be differentiated on the basis of differences in metal bioaccumulation."

Edmunds Jr.,GF; Jensen,SL and Berner,L 1976 The Mayflies of North and Central America. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 330 pages pages.

Hammock,BG; Krigbaum,NY and Johnson,ML 2012 Incorporating invertebrate predators into theory regarding the timing of invertebrate drift. Aquatic Ecology, 46(2), 153-163. Abstract

Lugo-Ortiz,CR; McCafferty,WP 1998 A new North American genus of Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) and key to Baetis complex genera. Entomological News 109 5, 345-353. PDF

McCafferty,WP; Durfee,RS; Kondratieff,BC 1993 Colorado mayflies (Ephemeroptera): an annotated inventory. Southwestern Naturalist 38 3, 252-274. PDF

McCafferty,WP; Waltz,RD 1990 Revisionary synopsis of the Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) of North and Central America. Transactions of American Entomological Society 116, 769-799.

Meyer,MD; McCafferty,WP 2001 Hagen's small minnow mayfly (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in North America. Entomological News 112 4, 255-263.

Morihara,DK; McCafferty,WP 1979 The Baetis larvae of North America (Ephemeroptera:Baetidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 105, 139-221.

Short,RA; Canton,SP and Ward,JV 1980 Detrital processing and associated macroinvertebrates in a Colorado mountain stream. Ecology, 61(4), 727-732. PDF

Waltz,RD 1986 Revisionary studies of the mayfly family Baetidae (Ephemeroptera). Purdue Univ., dissertation. 259 pp.

Waltz RD and McCafferty,WP 1997 New generic synonymies in Baetidae (Ephemeroptera). Entomological News 108:134-140.

Wang,TQ; McCafferty,WP 1996 New diagnostic characters for the mayfly family Baetidae (Ephemeroptera). Entomological News 107 2, 207-212. PDF

Ward,JV, Kondratieff,BC and Zuellig,RE 2002 An Illustrated Guide to the Mountain Stream Insects of Colorado. 2nd ed. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 219 pages.
     Very useful. They briefly summarize the recent taxonomic changes to Baetidae relevent for Colorado on pages 86-88.

Brown,WS 2005 Baetidae Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Gunnison County, Colorado

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