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Trichoptera or Caddisfly publications relevant to Gunnison County Colorado

Many older publications are available from the Biodiversity Library.

Updated 1 March 2024

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Allan,JD 1975 The distributional ecology and diversity of benthic insects in Cement Creek, Colorado. Ecology 56:1040-1053. PDF
     Widely cited longitudinal survey of Cement Creek.

Allan,JD 1978 Trout predation and the size composition of stream drift. Limnology and Oceanography 23 (6) 1231-1237.

Allan,JD 1987 Macroinvertebrate drift in a Rocky Mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 144: 261-268.

Alstad,DN 1980 Comparative biology of the common Utah Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera). American Midland Naturalist 103, 167-174.

Alstad,DN 1982 Current speed and filtration rate link caddisfly phylogeny and distributional patterns on a stream gradient. Science, 216(4545), 533-534.
     Abstract: " Patterns of body size and net construction suggest that current speed and food-particle concentration (not size) influence the distribution of suspension-feeding caddisflies on a downstream gradient. Large ancestral taxa with high filtration rates occur in resource-poor upstream habitats; more derived members of the phylogeny enter successively in downstream reaches with slower current and greater concentrations of particulate food. "

Alvarez,M and Peckarsky,BL 2013 The influence of moss on grazers in high-altitude streams: food, refuge or both? Freshwater Biology, 58(9) 1982-1994. PDF

Anderson NH 1967 Biology and downstream drift of some Oregon Trichoptera. Canadian Entomologist 99(5):507-521.

Anderson NH 1974 The distributon and biology of the Oregon Trichoptera. Agric. Exper. Sta. Tech Bull. 134, Oregon Stae University, Corvallis.

Anderson,NH and Wisseman,RW 1987 Recovery of the Trichoptera fauna near Mt. St. Helens five years after the 1980 eruption. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Trichoptera (pp. 367-373). Springer Netherlands. PDF
     SUMMARY: "The stream fauna of the upper Clearwater Creek drainage was almost eliminated by the lateral blast and associated deposits of tephra and organic debris from the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Although 37 species have been recorded in benthic collections, the density of caddisflies in 1985 was only 30 m-2. Light-trap collections of adults for nine nights between July and September 1985 were compared for a site on Clearwater Creek, in the blast zone, and on a tributary where the riparian vegetation remained intact. More than 3,400 adults were collected and 55% of these were from the Clearwater Creek site. Of the 69 species identified, 45 were taken at Clearwater Creek and 56 at the Forested Tributary ; 33 species were common to both sites. Based on both the diversity and abundance of adults, it is apparent that low density of the benthic caddisfly fauna cannot be attributed to a lack of colonizing adults."

Armitage, BJ 1991 Diagnostic atlas of the North American caddisfly adults. I. Philopotamidae (2nd ed.). The Caddis Press. Athens, AL. 79 pages.

Armitage,BJ; Hamilton,SW 1990 Diagnostic atlas of the North American caddisfly adults. II. Ecnomidae, Polycentropodidae, Psychomyiidae, and Xiphocentronidae. Caddis Press, Anthens, Alabama (Columbus, Ohio).


Balik,JA; Jameson,EE; Wissinger,SA; Whiteman,HH and Taylor,BW 2022 Animal-driven nutrient supply declines relative to ecosystem nutrient demand along a pond hydroperiod gradient. Ecosystems, 25(3), pp.678-696. HTML

Balik,JA; Leitz,C; Washko,SE; Cleveland,B; Krejsa,DM; Perchik,ME; Stogsdill,A; Vlah,M; Demi,LM; Greig,HS and Shepard,ID 2022 Species-specific traits predict whole-assemblage detritus processing by pond invertebrates. Oecologia, 199(4), pp.951-963.

Balik,JA; Taylor,BW; Washko,SE and Wissinger,SA 2018 High interspecific variation in nutrient excretion within a guild of closely related caddisfly species. Ecosphere, 9(5) p.e02205. PDF

Balistrieri,LS; Mebane,CA and Schmidt,TS 2020 Time-dependent accumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn in mayfly and caddisfly larvae in experimental streams: Metal sensitivity, uptake pathways, and mixture toxicity. Science of the Total Environment, 732. html

Banks,N 1899 Descriptions of new North American neuropteroid insects. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 25:199-218. PDF

Banks,N. 1900. New genera and species of Nearctic neuropteroid insects. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 26:239-260. PDF

Banks,N 1901 Some insects of the Hudsonian zone in New Mexico. VI. Neuropteroid insects. Psyche(9) 286-287.

Banks,N 1904 Neuropteroid insects from New Mexico. Transactions of American Entomological Society 32, 97-110.

Banks,N 1905 Descriptions of new neuropteroid insects. Transactions of American Entomological Society 32, 1-20.

Banks,N 1907. Descriptions of new Trichoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 8:117-133, plates 8-9.

Banks,N 1908a Neuropteroid insects - notes and descriptions. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 34:255-267. PDF

Banks,N 1908b Some Trichoptera, and allied insects, from Newfoundland. Psyche 15: 61-67.
     Describes Limnephilus moestus among discussions of other animals.

Banks,N 1911 Descriptions of new species of North American Neuropterid Insects. Transactions of American Entomological Society 37, 335-360.

Banks,N 1914 American Trichoptera- notes and descriptions. Canadian Entomologist 46:149-156, 201-204, 252-258, 261-268.

Banks,N 1916 A classification of our limnephilid caddice flies. Canadian Entomologist 48: 117-122.

Banks,N 1918 New neuropteroid insects. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 62:3-24.

Banks,N 1924 Descriptions of new neuropteroid insects. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 65:421-455.

Banks,N 1943 Notes and descriptions of Nearctic Trichoptera. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 92: 341-369, plates 1-6.

Bergey,EA and Ward,JV 1989 Upstream-downstream movements of aquatic invertebrates in a Rocky Mountain stream, Hydrobiologia, Volume 185( 1) 71-82. Abstract

Bernhardt,SA 1965 Observations on case building by Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagan) larvae (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 59/60:63-76.

Berte,SB and Pritchard,G 1982 The phenomenon of egg mass liquefaction in Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen) (Trichoptera: Limnophilidae). Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 1:49-51.

Berte,SB and Pritchard,G 1983 The structure and hydration dynamics of Trichopteran (Insecta) egg masses. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61, 378-384.

Berte,SB; Pritchard,G 1986 The life histories of Limnephilus externus (Hagen), Anabolia bimaculata (walker), and Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen) (Trichoptera:Limnephilidae) in a pond in southern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64, 2348-2356.

Bjostad,LB; Jewett,DK and Brigham,DL 1996. Sex pheromone of caddisfly Hesperophylax occidentalis (Banks) (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 22:103-121.

Blahnik,RJ; Holzenthal,RW; Prather,AL; Bueno-Soria,J; Barba-Álvarez,R and Armitage,BJ 2007 The lactic acid method for clearing Trichoptera genitalia. In Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Trichoptera. The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio (pp. 9-14). PDF
     Abstract: "Lactic acid as a macerating agent for preparing Trichoptera genitalia has several advantages over traditional methods, including the greater likelihood of causing the endotheca of the phallus to evert and also the more complete extension of pleated or glandular structures. The value of doing this is that these characters are useful in making taxonomic and phylogenetic assessments."

Blickle,RL 1979 Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) of America North of Mexico. Bulletin of the University of New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station 509:1-97. PDF

Blinn,DW and Ruiter,DE 2006 Tolerance values of stream caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the lower Colorado river basin, USA. The Southwestern Naturalist 51(3):326-337. Abstract

Blinn, DW and Ruiter,DE 2013 Tolerance values and effects of selected environmental determinants on caddisfly (Trichoptera) distribution in northwest and north central Washington, USA. Western North American Naturalist, 73(3), pp.270-294. PDF

Borror,DJ; De Long,DM; Triplehorn,CA An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, PA.
     This was (and still is) very useful for all insect studies, however, a new edition was published in 2004, see Johnson and Triplehorn.

Bossart,JL and Carlton,CE 2002 Insect conservation in America. American Entomologist, 48(2), p.83. PDF

Brown,LE; Hannah,DM and Milner,AM 2007 Vulnerability of alpine stream biodiversity to shrinking glaciers and snowpacks. Global Change Biology, 13(5), pp.958-966.
     Abstract: "Climate change poses a considerable threat to the biodiversity of high latitude and altitude ecosystems, with alpine regions across the world already showing responses to warming. However, despite probable hydrological change as alpine glaciers and snowpacks shrink, links between alpine stream biota and reduced meltwater input are virtually unknown. Using data from the French Pyrénées, we demonstrate that taxonomic richness and total abundance of stream macroinvertebrates increase significantly as meltwater (snow melt and glacier melt) contributions to river flow decrease. Macroinvertebrate species showed a gradation of optimum meltwater conditions at which they persist. For example: Habroleptoides berthelemyi (Ephemeroptera), Perla grandis (Plecoptera) and Rhithrogena spp. (Ephemeroptera) increased in abundance when meltwater contributions to streamflow decrease, whereas in contrast, Rhyacophila angelieri (Trichoptera) and Diamesa latitarsis spp. (Diptera) decreased in abundance. Changes in alpine stream macroinvertebrate community composition as meltwater contributions decline were associated with lower suspended sediment concentration, and higher water temperature, electrical conductivity and pH. Our results suggest α diversity (at a site) of streams presently fed by meltwaters will increase with future meltwater reductions. However, β diversity (between-sites) will be reduced as snow melt and glacier melt decrease because the habitat heterogeneity associated with spatiotemporal variability of water source contributions will become lower as meltwater contributions decline. Extinction of some endemic alpine aquatic species (such as the Pyrenean caddis fly R. angelieri) is predicted with reduced meltwater inputs, leading to decreases in γ diversity (region). Our identification of significant links between meltwater production and stream macroinvertebrate biodiversity has wider implications for the conservation of alpine river ecosystems under scenarios of climate change induced glacier and snowpack loss."

Buchwalter,DB; Cain,DJ; Martin,CA; Xie,L; Luoma,SN and Garland,JT 2008 Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 24, 8321-8326.

Buchwalter,DB and Luoma,SN 2005 Differences in dissolved cadmium and zinc uptake among stream insects: mechanistic explanations. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 498-504.


Cain,DJ; Luoma,SN and Wallace,WG 2004 Linking metal bioaccumulation of aquatic insects to their distribution patterns in a mining-impacted river. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23, 1463-1473.

Canton,SP and Ward,JV 1981 The aquatic insects, with emphasis on Trichoptera, of a Colorado stream affected by coal strip-mine drainage. Southwestern Naturalist 25 4, 453-460.PDF
     They studied Trout Creek where it runs through the Edna Coal Mine in northwestern Colorado. The mine spoils were 30 meters from the edge of the creek (approximately a 100 foot buffer zone). They found the aquatic insect density (numbers per square meter) and biomass (weight in grams per square meter) did not change above and below the mine. The Shannon-Weaver Diversity index also showed no difference between sites. However the community structure (which species were present and proportions) did change. Since there were irrigation water and cattle influences at their downstream site, their results may reflect these additional water uses. They note the biggest visible change at this mine is the loss of willow and alder trees downstream of the mine. The caddisfly population changed the most between sites, shifting from a mix of families above the mine to dominance by Hydropsychidae and Glossosomatidae below the mine.

Canton,SP, and Ward,JV 1981 Emergence of Trichoptera from Trout Creek, Colorado, USA. Pages 39-45 in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Trichoptera (G. P. Moretti, ed.) Dr. W. Junk, The Hague.

Cardinale,BJ; Gelmann,ER and Palmer,MA 2004 Net spinning Caddisflies as stream ecosystem engineers: the influence of Hydropsyche on benthic substrate stability. Functional Ecology 18: 381-387. HTML

Chapin,JW 1978 Systematics of nearctic Micrasema (Tricoptera: Brachycentridae). Ph.D Dissertation, Clemson University.

Chen,YE 1992 The larva and pupae of Apatania praevolans Morse (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), with a key to described larvae of North American species of Apatania. Aquatic Insects 14 1, 49-55.
     Has a key that separates the Apatania species of North America. Also lists the authors, descriptions and diagnoses for the larvae of Apatania of the world that were described as of the time of this study.

Clements,WH; Carlisle,DN; Lazorchak,JM and Johnson,PC 2000 Heavy metals structure benthic communities in Colorado mountain streams. Ecological Applications 10(2)626-638. Abstract
     The authors discuss the EPA's Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) data on aquatic insects among a number of mine-polluted and clean streams and rivers in Colorado. Quote from page 633: "Rhyacophila sp.(Fig.5j) was the only caddisfly that showed a significant response to metal level and was lower at medium-metal sites. Differences among metal catagories in abundance of the three other dominant caddisflies, (Brachycentrus americanus, Hydropsyche sp., and Lepidostoma sp.) and the blackfly Simulium sp. were not significant (Fig. 5g, h, i, k)."

Clubb,RW; Gaufin,AR and Lords,JL 1975 Acute cadmium toxicity studies upon nine species of aquatic insects. Environmental Research 9, 332-341.

Cobb,DG and Flannagan,JF 1990 Trichoptera and substrate stability in the Ochre River, Manitoba. Hydrobiologia, 206 (1)29 - 38. DOI 10.1007/BF00018967 Abstract

Coffman,WP, Cummns,KW, and Wuycheck,JC 1971 Energy flow in a woodland stream ecosystem: I. Tissue support trophic structure of autumnal community. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 68(2) 232-276.

Corbet,PS 1966 Parthenogenesis in caddisflies (Trichoptera). Canadian Journal of Zoology 44, 981-982.
     Quote from page 981: "Throughout its range, Apatania zonella (Zetterstedt) (Apataniidae) is represented wholly or predominantly by females (Lack 1933, Lack 1934, Mosely 1928) which average more than 99% in collections, although copulation in nature has been witnessed (Lack, 1933). At Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Canada (71;° 18´ W., 81° 49´ N.), where females comprise about 96% of active adults, a nulliparous individual in captivity laid 98 eggs, of which 91 hatched. Her receptaculum seminis was empty. The likelihood that this female had exhausted an endowment of sperm on one egg-batch, which nevertheless showed high viability, is extremely small."

Courtney-Mustaphi,CJ; Steiner,E; von Fumetti,S and Heiri,O 2024 Aquatic invertebrate mandibles and sclerotized remains in Quaternary lake sediments. Journal of Paleolimnology, 71(1), pp.45-83. PDF
     Abstract: "Subfossil remains of aquatic invertebrates found in lacustrine sediments are useful paleoenvironmental indicators. Strongly scleroticized chitinous body parts from the exoskeleton or exuviae from invertebrates are often the most resistant to degradation during syn- and post-depositional processes. Invertebrate mandibles and body parts that superficially resemble mandibles, such as claw-like appendages and pygopodia, are frequently found in sieved Quaternary lacustrine, palustrine, and deltaic sediments. Guides, catalogs and atlases have been published that are well suited for the identification of subfossil remains for several invertebrate groups, such as chironomids, cladocerans, and ostracods, among others. However, aquatic invertebrate remains of several ecologically important invertebrate groups continue to be underused in paleoenvironmental studies, in part, because there are few visual keys or other documentation sources (e.g. descriptions, catalogs or atlases) that increase awareness and facilitate identification. Here we present sets of digital photomicrographs of pre-identified aquatic invertebrate specimens collected from streams, lakes and ponds that have been chemically cleared to preserve structures that are observed in subfossil remains in sieved sediment samples, commonly the > 100 μm size fractions. In addition, we present examples of these structures from Quaternary lake-sediment samples and cite the dispersed literature that demonstrate that these remains are preserved and remain identifiable in the fossil record. We document mandibles from several taxonomic groups that include Crustacea: Amphipoda, Isopoda, Ostracoda, and Notostraca; and Insecta orders: Coleoptera, Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Lepidoptera, Megaloptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. The compilation of microphotographs also includes pygopodia and claw appendages of Plecoptera and Trichoptera, with additional images of other common invertebrate mouthpart and head remains. We describe several types of fossilizing structures that are, to our knowledge, not previously described in the paleoecological literature (e.g. mandibles of amphipods or plecopterans) but also show that some structures are considerably more variable than expected based on available descriptions, such as the mandibles of Ephemeroptera or Trichoptera, and that these can potentially be separated into different morphotypes useful for identification of subfossil material. We also discuss the potential of analyzing and interpreting the additional remains together with the remains of more commonly analyzed invertebrate groups (e.g. Chironomidae) to contribute to paleoenvironmental interpretations, which will allow assessments of functional groups (e.g. predators, shredders, grazers) or habitat types (e.g. littoral, profundal or lotic environments) that aquatic invertebrate remains originate from."

Crespo,JG 2011 A review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects. Journal of Insect Science, 11. PDF

Cuffney,TF and Minshall,GW 1981 Life history and bionomics of Arctopsyche grandis (Trichoptera) in a central Idaho stream. Holarctic Ecology 4(4) 252-262. Abstract and first page

Cummins,KW 1973 Trophic relations of aquatic insects. Annual review of entomology, 18(1), 183-206.

Cummins,KW; Wilzbach,MA; Gates,DM; Perry,JB; Taliaferro,WB 1989a Leaf litter that falls into streams influences communities of stream invertebrates. BioScience 39 1, 24-30.

Cummins,KW; Wilzbach,MA; Gates,DM; Perry,JB and Taliaferro,WB 1989 Shredders and riparian vegetation. BioScience, 39(1), pp.24-30. PDF

Curtis, J. 1835 British Entomology being Illustrations and Descriptions of the Genera of Insects found in Great Britain and Ireland Containing Coloured Figure from Nature of the Most Rare and Beautiful Species, and in Many Instances of the Plants Upon Which They are Found. Richard Taylor, London. vol. XII, 530-577.


DeJong,GD 2002 Variation in abdominal sa2 and sa3 setation in larvae of Arctopsyche grandis (Banks) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104:242-243.

Denis,C 1977 Larval and imaginal diapause in Limnephilidae. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Trichoptera, Junk, The Hague. 109-115.

Denning,DG. 1941 The genus Grammotaulius in North America, with the description of a new species (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). The Canadian Entomologist 73:232-235.

Denning,DG 1948a A review of the Rhyacophilidae. Canadian Entomologist 80:97-117.

Denning,DG 1948b New and little known species of Nearctic Trichoptera. Psyche 55:16-23.

Denning,DG 1949. New and little known species of caddis flies. American Midland Naturalist 42:112-122.

Denning,DG 1964 The genus Homophylax (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 57:253-260.

Denning,DG 1965 New rhyacophilids and limnephilids (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae and Limnephilidae). Canadian Entomologist 97: 690-700.

Denning,DG 1968 New species and notes of Western Trichoptera. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 41:63-69.

Denning,DG 1970 The genus Psychoglypha (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Canadian Entomologist 102(1):15-30.

Denning,DG 1983 New and interesting Trichoptera from the western United States. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 58, 206-215.

Denning,DG; Blickle,RL 1972 A review of the genus Ochrotrichia (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 65 1, 141-151.

DeWalt,RE; Stewart,KW; Moulton,SR; Kennedy,JH 1994 Summer emergence of mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies from a Colorado mountain stream. Southwestern Naturalist 39 ()3) 249-256. PDF

Djernæs,M 2010 Morphology, function and evolution of the sternum V glands in Amphiesmenoptera. PhD thesis, University of Alberta. 368 pages. PDF

Djernæs,M 2011 Structure and phylogenetic significance of the sternum V glands in Trichoptera. Zootaxa 2884: 1-60. PDF
     The sternum V gland usually produces sex pheremones in some female caddisflies and butterflies. Gland function in male insects is unclear and may be used for aggregation or defense.
Abstract: "I investigated the sternum V gland in 38 families of Trichoptera, and found it to be present in 25 of these. I found that the gland is generally present in Annulipalpia, except Dipseudopsidae, and in Spicipalpia. It is widespread in Plenitentoria, while it is often absent in Brevitentoria, especially in males. The opening is slit-like and U or crescent-shaped. There is significant variation in the cuticular structures associated with the opening ranging from no apparent modification, over scaly patches to elaborate protuberances. Gland opening muscles are associated with the gland in all families except Psychomyiidae, and are divided into 2 distinct types: One originating on the front edge of sternum VI found in Philopotamidae, Rhyacophilidae, Glossosomatidae and Hydroptilidae; and 1 originating on the cuticle of sternum V found in all other trichopterans. The shape of the gland reservoir is variable, from round periform to reniform, elongate or compartmentalised. Muscle fibres are often associated with the reservoir, but are notably absent in Limnephilidae. I mapped characters based on gland structures on a phylogeny of Trichoptera, and discuss the results. The sternum V gland provides potentially important characters from the superorder to the species level. I discuss 2 cases where characters from the sternum V gland may solve existing phylogenetic and taxonomic puzzles: Delimitation of Dipseudopsidae versus Polycentropodidae and the relationships among the hydropsychid subfamilies. "

Djernæs,M and Sperling,FAH 2012 Exploring a key synapomorphy: correlations between structure and function in the sternum V glands of Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Insecta). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106: 561-579. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2012.01894.x
     Abstract: The sternum V glands are a key synapomorphy that unites Trichoptera with Lepidoptera, but their functional aspects have not been analysed from an evolutionary perspective. We examine phylogenetic trends and correlations between chemical and morphological features of these glands. The most likely ancestral gland compounds are heptan-2-ol, 4-hepten-2-one and -ol, nonan-2-one, and 6-nonen-2-one and -ol, making pheromone production a plausible ancestral function. The most widespread gland compounds (heptan-2-one and -ol and nonan-2-one and -ol) are not known from Apataniidae + Limnephilidae (Trichoptera), which in turn uniquely produce a number of methylated 3-ketones and their corresponding alcohols, probably functioning as pheromones. We propose a functional connection between perforated patches on sternum IV in females and a scaly/dome-covered area around the gland openings, as well as between perforated patches and lack of Trichoptera-type opening muscles. We also propose a functional connection between the shape of the gland reservoirs and the presence of gland reservoir musculature. The perforated patches were significantly correlated with several gland compounds that had double bonds between carbon atoms: the double bonds may lower the viscosity of the compounds, facilitating secretion through the tiny pores of the perforated patches. The production of defensive substances in Pycnopsyche (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) is probably connected to the presence of large, compartmentalized gland reservoirs. Large glands in male Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) are probably linked to male aggregation pheromone production. The relative sizes of sternum V gland reservoirs and fenestral gland reservoirs in female philopotamids (Trichoptera) suggest a complementary function of the two structures.

Dodds,GS and Hisaw,FL 1924 Ecological studies of aquatic insects: size of respiratory organs in relation to environmental conditions. Ecology (5) 3: 262-271. Abstract

Dodds,GS and Hisaw,FL 1925 Ecological studies on aquatic insects. III. Adaptations of caddisfly larvae to swift streams. Ecology 6(2)123-137. Abstract and first page

Dodds,GS and Hisaw,FL 1925 Ecological studies on aquatic insects. IV. Altitudinal range and zonation of mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies in the Colorado Rockies. Ecology 6(4)380-390. Abstract PDF

Dosdall, LM 1991 Survival of selected aquatic insects exposed to methoxychlor treatment of the Saskatchewan River system. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada. 26(1) 27-40.

Driver,EA; Sugden,LG and Kovach,RJ 1974 Calorific, chemical and physical values of potential duck foods Freshwater Biology 4 (3), 281-292.


Eaton,AE 1873 VI. On the Hydroptilidae, a family of the Trichoptera. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 125-151.

Elmork,K and Saether,OR 1970 Distribution of invertebrates in a high mountain brook in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. University of Colorado Studies Series in Biology No 31.

Erman, NA 1986 Movements of self-marked caddisfly larvae, Chyrandra centralis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) in a Sierran spring stream, California, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 16:455-464.

Erman,NA 1989 Species composition, emergence, and habitat preferences of Trichoptera of the Sagehen Creek Basin, California, USA. The Great Basin Naturalist, 186-197. PDF

Etnier, DE;Parker,CR and Stocks,IC 2004 A new species of Rhyacophila Pictet (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) from Great Smoky Mountains National Park, with illustrations of females of R. appalachia Morse and Ross and R. mycta Ross. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 106(2): 396- 406.

Eum, J. -h.; Yoe, S. -m.; Seo, Y. -r.; Kang, S. -w.; Han, S. -s. 2005 Characterization of a novel repetitive secretory protein specifically expressed in the modifid salivary gland of Hydropsyche sp. (Trichoptera; Hydropsyhidae). Ins. Biochem. Molec. Biol. 35: 435-441.


Fischer,FCJ 1960-1973 Trichopterorum Catalogus, volumes I-XV and Index. Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging, Amsterdam.
     Has all the reasons for names, name changes (nomenclature) and taxonomy up until the time of publication. JC Morse's (and other Trichoptera taxonomists) Trichoptera World Checklist http://entweb.sites.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/ incorporates this and has newer information online.

Flint,OS, Jr. 1960 Taxonomy and biology of Nearctic limnephilid larvae (Trichoptera), with special reference to species in eastern United States. Entomologica American 40:1-117.

Flint,OS, Jr. 1964 Notes on some Nearctic Psychomyiidae with special reference to their larvae (Trichoptera). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 115.

Flint,OS, Jr. 1984 The genus Brachycentrus in North America, with a proposed phylogeny of the genera of Brachycentridae (Trichoptera). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 398:1-58. PDF

Flint,OS, Jr. 1984. On the genus Brachycentrus (abstract). Pages 143 in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trichoptera (J. C. Morse, ed.) Dr. W. Junk, The Hague.

Fox,PJ 1978 Caddis larvae (Trichoptera) as predators of fish eggs. Freshwater Biology, 8(4), 343-345.
     Abstract: " Eggs of bullhead (Cottus gobio) were found with damaged shells and with the contents removed. Experiments in laboratory aquaria indicated that the damage was caused by caddis larvae and that the type of caddis involved in egg predation might be identified by the nature of the shell damage. "
We don't have bullheads in Gunnison County, but trout and caddisflies could possibly have similar interactions.

Fuller,RJ and Mackay,R 1980 Feeding ecology of three species of Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58, 2239-2251.

Fuller,RL; Fry,TJ; Roelefs,JA 1988 Influence of different food types on the growth of Simulium vittatum (Diptera) and Hydropsyche betteni (Trichoptera). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7 3, 197-204.

Fuller,RL; Mackay,RJ 1981 Effects of food quality on the growth of three Hydropsyche species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 59 6, 1133-1140.


Gall,BG and Brodie,ED, Jr. 2009 Behavioral avoidance of injured conspecific and predatory chemical stimuli by larvae of the aquatic caddisfly Hesperophylax occidentalis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87: 1009-1015.

Gallepp,GW 1974 Behavioral ecology of Brachycentrus occidentalis Banks during the pupation period. Ecology, Vol. 55(6) 1283-1294. Abstract and first page

Gallepp,GW 1974 Diel periodicity in the behavior of the caddisfly, Brachycentrus americanus (Banks). Freshwater Biology 4, 193-204.

Gallepp,G 1976 Temperature as a cue for the periodicity in feeding of Brachycentrus occidentalis (Insecta: Trichoptera). Animal Behaviour 24: 7-10.

Gallepp,GW 1977 Responses of caddisfly larvae (Brachycentrus spp.) to temperature, food availability and current velocity. American Midland Naturalist 98(1)59-84. Abstract

Gallepp,GW, Jr. 1975 The behavioural ecology of larval caddisflies, Brachycentrus americanus and Brachycentrus occidentalis. Dissertation Abstracts International 35: 4532.

Ge,X; Peng,L; Vogler,AP; Morse,JC; Yang,L; Sun,C and Wang,B 2022 Massive gene rearrangements of mitochondrial genomes and implications for the phylogeny of Trichoptera (Insecta). Systematic Entomology. PDF
     Abstract: "Mitochondrial genomes have been widely used for phylogenetic reconstruction and evolutionary analysis in various groups of Insecta. Gene rearrangements in the mitogenome can be informative characters for phylogenetic reconstruction and adaptive evolution. Trichoptera is one of the most important groups of aquatic insects. Prior to this study, complete mitogenomes from Trichoptera were restricted to eight families, resulting in a biased view of their mitogenome structure and evolution. Here, we assemble new mitogenomes for 66 species by high-throughput sequencing. The mitogenomes of 19 families and 47 genera are documented for the first time. Combined with 16 previously published mitogenomes of Trichoptera, we find 14 kinds of gene rearrangement patterns novel for Trichoptera, including rearrangement of protein-coding genes, tRNAs and control regions. Simultaneously, we provide evidence for the occurrence of tandem duplication and non-random loss events in the mitogenomes of three families. Phylogenetic analyses show that Hydroptilidae was recovered as a sister group to Annulipalpia. The increased nucleotide substitution rate and adaptive evolution may have affected the mitochondrial gene rearrangements in Trichoptera. Our study offers new insights into the mechanisms and patterns of mitogenome rearrangements in Insecta at large and into the usefulness of mitogenomic gene order as a phylogenetic marker within Trichoptera."

Ge,X; Zang,H; Ye,X; Peng,L; Wang,B; Lian,G and Sun,C 2022 Comparative mitogenomic analyses of Hydropsychidae revealing the novel rearrangement of protein-coding gene and tRNA (Trichoptera: Annulipalpia). Insects, 13(9), p.759. PDF
     Abstract: " Gene rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of insects, especially the rearrangement of protein-coding genes, has long been a hot topic for entomologists. Although mitochondrial gene rearrangement is common within Annulipalpia, protein-coding gene rearrangement is relatively rare. As the largest family in Annulipalpia, the available mitogenomes from Hydropsychidae Curtis, 1835 are scarce, and thus restrict our interpretation of the mitogenome characteristic. In this study, we obtained 19 novel mitogenomes of Hydropsychidae, of which the mitogenomes of the genus Arctopsyche are published for the first time. Coupled with published hydropsychid mitogenome, we analyzed the nucleotide composition evolutionary rates and gene rearrangements of the mitogenomes among subfamilies. As a result, we found two novel gene rearrangement patterns within Hydropsychidae, including rearrangement of protein-coding genes. Meanwhile, our results consider that the protein-coding gene arrangement of Potamyia can be interpreted by the tandem duplication/random loss (TDRL) model. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships within Hydropsychidae constructed by two strategies (Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood) strongly support the monophyly of Arctopscychinae, Diplectroninae, Hydropsychinae, and Macronematinae. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms and patterns of mitogenome rearrangements in Hydropsychidae."

Geraci,CJ; Zhou,X; Morse,JC and Kjer,KM 2010 Defining the genus Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) based on DNA and morphological evidence. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29(3):918-933.

Gerth,B; Giersch,J; Kerst,C; Lee,J; Metcalfe,A; Orfinger,A; Ruiter,T; Wevers,MJ and Wisseman,B 2023 David Ernest Ruiter (February 2, 1948 to February 4, 2021). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 99(1), pp.1-21.

Gill,BA; Harrington,RA; Kondratieff,BC; Zamudio,KR; Poff,NL and Funk,WC 2014 Morphological taxonomy, DNA barcoding, and species diversity in southern Rocky Mountain headwater streams. Freshwater Science 33(1) 288-301

Givens,DR and Smith,SD 1980 A synopsis of western Arctopsychinae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Melanderia 35:1-24.

Goodrich,AL, Jr. 1937 The head capsule of a Trichopterous pupa, Dicosmoecus atripes Hagen (Limnophilidae). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 56(2) 243-248.

Goodrich,AL, Jr. 1941. The external anatomy of the pupal abdomen in Dicosmoecus atripes Hagen (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 14:134-143.

Gotceitas, V 1985 Formation of aggregations by overwintering fifth instar Dicosmoecus atripes larvae (Trichoptera). Oikos 44(2) 313-318.

Gray,LJ and Ward,JV 1979 Food habits of stream benthos at sites of differing food availability. American Midland Naturalist 102 1, 157-167. PDF

Gray,LJ; Ward,JV; Martinson,R and Bergey,E 1983 Aquatic macroinverterbrates of the Piceance Basin, Colorado: Community response along spatial and temporal gradients of environmental conditions. The Southwestern Naturalist, pp.125-135. PDF

Greig,HS and Wissinger,SA 2010 Reinforcing abiotic and biotic time constraints facilitate the broad distribution of a generalist with fixed traits. Ecology 91(3) 836-846. PDF

Grubbs,SA and Cummins,KW 1996 Linkages between riparian forest composition and shredder voltinism. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 137 1, 39-58.


Hagen,HA 1861 Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America with a list of South American species. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 4, 1-344.

Hagen,HA 1866 Description of a genus of caddis-flies, of which the larvae construct cases known as Helicopsyche. The Entomoloogist's Monthly Magazine 2:252-255.

Hagen,HA 1873 Beiträge zur kenntniss der Phryganiden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 23:377-452.

Hagen HA 1874 Report on the Pseudo-Neuroptera and Neuroptera collected by Lieut. W. L. Carpenter in 1873 in Colorado. Pages 571-606 in Hayden FV, Annual Report of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Embracing Colorado, Being a Report of Progress of the Exploration for the Year 1873 7:571-606.

Hamilton,SW and Holzenthal,RW 1984 The caddisfly genus Helicopsyche in America, north of Mexico (Trichoptera: Helicopsychidae) (abstract). Pages 167 in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trichoptera (J. C. Morse, ed.) Dr. W. Junk, The Hague.

Hanna,HM 1960 Methods of case-building and repair by larvae of caddis flies. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series A, General Entomology 35(7-9)97-106.

Harris,TL and Lawrence,TM 1978 Environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of Trichoptera. Environmental Protection Agency Report 600/4-78-063. Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati,OH.

Hauer,RF and Stanford,JA 1981 Larval specialization and phenotypic variation in Arctopsyche grandis (Trichoptera: Hydrospsychidae). Ecology 62(3)645-653. Abstract

Hauer,FR and Stanford,JA 1982 Ecology and life histories of three net-spinning caddisfly species (Hydropsychidae: Hydropsyche) in the Flathead River, Montana. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 1:18-29.

Hauer,FR and Stanford,JA 1986 Ecology and co-existence of two species of Brachycentrus (Trichoptera) in a Rocky Mountain River. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64 7, 1469-1474.

Hauer,FR; Stanford,JA and Ward,JV 1989 Serial discontinuities in a Rocky mountain river. II. Distribution and abundance of trichoptera. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 3(1) 177-182.
     Abstract: "River regulation in the headwaters and middle reaches of the Gunnison River, Colorado, significantly altered distributions and abundances of Trichoptera fauna. Twenty-five species were collected from mainstream samples, with the greatest species richness occurring at an unregulated, rhithron segment above the central reach dams. At sites immediately below the three hypolimnial-release dams and a reregulation dam, species richness was reduced 35-90 per cent and abundance > 95 per cent. Net-spinning caddisflies were the dominant trichopterans at unregulated sites; Arctopsyche grandis in the upper reaches (218 organisms, 586 mg dry mass m-2) and Hydropsyche cockerelli, H. occidentalis and Cheumatopsyche pettiti in the lower river (9041 total organisms, 6621 mg m-2), downstream from the last dam. The observed distributional pattern of low trichopteran densities in dam tailwaters and high hydropsychid densities at sites 60-80 km below the central reach dams is a classic expression of continuum resets and adjustments in response to stream regulation as predicted by the Serial Discontinuity Concept. "

Hawkins,CP 2009 Revised invertebrate RIVPACS model and O/E index for assessing the biological condition of Colorado streams. Prepared by Western Center for Monitoring and Assesment of Freshwater Ecosystems, Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University for Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Water Quality Control Division-Monitoring Unit. PDF

Heinold,B 2010 The mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the South Platte River Basin of Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming. M.S. Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 375 pages. 148 distribution maps. PDF

Hering,D; Schmidt-Kloiber,A; Murphy,J; Lücke,S; Zamora-Munoz,C; López-Rodríguez,MJ; Huber,T and Graf,W 2009 Potential impact of climate change on aquatic insects: a sensitivity analysis for European caddisflies (Trichoptera) based on distribution patterns and ecological preferences. Aquatic Sciences, 71(1), pp.3-14. PDF
     Abstract: "We analysed the sensitivity of European Trichoptera (caddisfly) species to climate change impacts based on their distribution and ecological preferences, and compared the fraction of species potentially endangered by climate change between the European ecoregions. The study covers 23 European ecoregions as defined by Illies (1978). For 1134 Trichoptera species and subspecies, we coded 29 parameters describing biological and ecological preferences and distribution based on the evaluation of more than 1400 literature references. Five parameters served to describe the species' sensitivity to climate change impacts: endemism, preference for springs, preference for cold water temperatures, short emergence period, and restricted ecological niches in terms of feeding types. Of the European Trichoptera species and subspecies, 47.9% are endemic, 23.1% have a strong preference for springs, 21.9% are cold stenothermic, 35.5% have a short emergence period, and 43.7% are feeding type specialists. The fraction of endemic species meeting at least one of the four other sensitivity criteria mentioned above is highest in the Iberic-Macaronesian Region (30.2% of all species), about 20% in several other south European ecoregions, and about 10% in high mountain ranges. In 15 out of 23 ecoregions (including all northern European and lowland ecoregions) the proportion is less than 3%.
The high fraction of potentially endangered species in southern Europe is a result of speciation during the Pleistocene. Species having colonised northern Europe afterwards have generally a large geographical range and are mainly generalists and thus buffered against climate change impacts."

Herrmann,SJ; Ruiter,DE and Unzicker,JD 1986 Distribution and records of Colorado Trichoptera. Southwestern Naturalist 31 4, 421-457. Abstract and first page
     Abstract: "Previous published records, new records, drainage, habitat preference, altitudinal range, and adult collection dates are presented for 176 species in 15 families of Colorado Trichoptera. Of this listing 53 species are new records for Colorado."
gunnisoninsects.org uses distribution information from this paper, see the Trichoptera list :-).

Hiley,PD 1969 A method of rearing Trichoptera larvae for taxonomic purposes. Entomological mon Magazine 105, 278-279.

Hinchliffe,R and Palmer,AR 2010 Curious chiral cases of caddisfly larvae: handed behavior, asymmetric forms, evolutionary history. Integrative and comparative biology, 50(4) 606-618. HTML
     Abstract: "Studies of right-left asymmetries have yielded valuable insights into the mechanisms of both development and evolution. Larvae from several groups of caddisflies (Trichoptera) build portable asymmetrical cases within which they live. In nearly all species that build spiral-walled tubular cases, the direction of wall coiling is random (equal numbers of dextral and sinistral cases within species) whereas in all species that build helicospiral, snail-like cases the direction of coiling is exclusively dextral. Asymmetrical tubes result from handed behavior, and ~20% of larvae removed from a spiral-walled, tubular case build a replacement case of opposite chirality. So handed behavior (and hence direction of tube-wall spiraling) is likely learned rather than determined genetically. Asymmetrical larval cases appear to have evolved at least seven times in the Trichoptera, five times as spiral-walled tubes and twice as snail-like helicospiral cases. Helicospiral cases may reduce vulnerability to predation by mimicking snail shells, whereas spiral arrangements of vegetation fragments in tube walls may be more robust mechanically than other arrangements, but experimental evidence is lacking. Within one family (Phryganeidae), one or perhaps two species exhibit an excess of sinistral-walled cases, suggesting that genes that bias handed behavior in a particular direction evolved after handed behaviors already existed (genetic assimilation)."

Holzenthal,RW; Blahnik,RJ; Prather,AL and Kjer,KM 2007 Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813 (Insecta), Caddisflies. Zootaxa, 1668: 639-698. PDF
     Abstract: "The taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the aquatic insect order Trichoptera, caddisflies, are reviewed. The order is among the most important and diverse of all aquatic taxa. Larvae are vital participants in aquatic food webs and their presence and relative abundance are used in the biological assessment and monitoring of water quality. The species described by Linnaeus are listed. The morphology of all life history stages (adults, larvae, and pupae) is diagnosed and major features of the anatomy are illustrated. Major components of life history and biology are summarized. A discussion of phylogenetic studies within the order is presented, including higher classification of the suborders and superfamilies, based on recent literature. Synopses of each of 45 families are presented, including the taxonomic history of the family, a list of all known genera in each family, their general distribution and relative species diversity, and a short overview of family-level biological features. The order contains 600 genera, and approximately 13,000 species."

Holzenthal,RW; Blahnik,RJ; Kjer,KM and Prather,AL 2007 An update on the phylogeny of caddisflies (Trichoptera). In Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Trichoptera. The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio (pp. 143-153). PDF
     Abstract: "An updated phylogeny of Trichoptera is presented based on 4 independent datasets (nuclear rRNA, EF-1α, COI, and morphology) from 210 taxa representing 44 of the 45 caddisfly families (all except Antipodoeciidae). Analyses were performed using differentially weighted parsimony and Bayesian methods. Results were congruent with previous analyses, with support for the following monophyletic clades: Annulipalpia, Integripalpia, Plenitentoria, Brevitentoria, and Sericostomatoidea. Spicipalpia (Glossosomatidae, Hydrobiosidae, Rhyacophilidae, Hydroptilidae), while not itself monophyletic, grouped with Integripalpia in a strongly supported monophyletic clade. Within Annulipalpia, the superfamily Psychomyioidea, comprising the families Ecnomidae, Polycentropodidae, Dipseudopsidae, Psychomyiidae, and Xiphocentronidae, was recovered as monophyletic, resulting in the revised status of Hydropsychoidea sensu Wiggins to include only the family Hydropsychidae."

Hodkinson,ID 1975 A community analysis of the benthic insect fauna of an abandoned beaver pond. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 44(2) 533-551.

Hoffman,RL and Parker,CR 1997 Limnephilus moestus Banks, a northern caddisfly in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Banisteria 10:25-26.

Hoffmann,A; Resh,VH 2003 Oviposition in three species of limnephiloid caddisflies (Trichoptera): hierarchical influences on site selection. Freshwater Biology (48)6 1064-1077

Holomuzki,JR 1983 Predatory behavior of larval Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum on Limnephilus (Trichoptera) larvae. Western North American Naturalist 43(3) 475-476. PDF

Hornig,CE and Brusven,MA 1984 Effects of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on leaf utilization by Hesperophylax occidentalis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science 20:1-10.

Houghton,DC; Brandin,CM and Brakel,KA 2018 Analysis of the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Manistee River watershed, Michigan. The Great Lakes Entomologist, 44(1 & 2) PDF


Irons,JG III 1988 Life history patterns and trophic ecology of Trichoptera in two Alaskan (U.S.A.) subarctic streams. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66:1258-1265. Abstract

Ivanov,VD and Melnitsky,SI 1999 Structure of sternal pheromone glands in caddisflies (Trichoptera). Entomological Review, 79, 926–942. Translated from Entomolgicheskoe Obozrenie, 78, 505–526.

Ivanov,VD and Melnitsky,SI 2002 Structure of pheromone glands in Trichoptera. Nova Supplementa Entomologica (Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Trichoptera), 15, 17–28.

Iwata,M 1927 Trichopterous larvae from Japan. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 11: 203-233.


Jackson JK, Resh VH. 1992. Variation in genetic structure among populations of the caddisfly Helicopsyche borealis from three streams in northern California, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 27:29:42.

Jannot,JE; Kerans,BL 2003 Body size, sexual size dimorphism, and Rensch's rule in adult Hydropsychid caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 81, 1956-1964.
     Rensch's rule applies to a group of taxa, such as genera in a family or species in a genus. Rensch's rule states that sexual size dimorphism (SSD) decreases as the genus gets larger. Dimorphism means literally 2 (di) shapes (morphs) or in this instance, the difference in size between males and females. In most insects including caddisflies, females are usually bigger. Humans are sexually dimorphic too, except males are larger instead. So it turns out this study is interesting because Hydropsychids violate Rensch's rule. As the females get bigger, male size does not converge with female size. They focused on differences between genera, so it is possible Rensch's rule may apply at the species level. They suggest this result is due to average Hydropsychidae life history. Since the most selection pressure is on larvae, sexual selection (which affects male size) and fecundity selection (affecting female size) is not as strong in these species. It is also possible phylogenetic inertia is affecting SSD in Hydropsychids. Phylogenetic inertia is when selection on ancestral species created a pattern that hasn't changed in todays taxa yet even if the current selection pressures are different. More information is available on the species pages for Arctopsyche grandis and Hydropsyche occidentalis

Jannot,JE; Bruneau,E and Wissinger,SA 2007 Effects of larval energetic resources on life history and adult allocation patterns in a caddisfly (Trichoptera: Phryganeidae). Ecological Entomology, 32(4) 376-383. Abstract

Jannot,JE; Wissinger,SA and Lucas,JR 2008 Diet and a developmental time constraint alter life-history trade-offs in a caddis fly (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 95(3), 495-504. Abstract

Jewett,D; Brigham,DL and Bjostad,LB 1996. Hesperophylax occidentalis (Banks)(Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) sex pheromone structure-activity study with electroantennograms. Journal of Chemical Ecology 22: 123-138.

Johnson,KR; Jepson,PC and Jenkins,JJ 2008 Esfenvalerate-induced case-abandonment in the larvae of the caddisfly (Brachycentrus americanus) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27(2) 397-403. Abstract

Johnson,NF and Triplehorn, CA 2004 Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects, 7th edition. Brooks Cole, 864 pages.
     The newest edition of Boring and Too Long :-) Has technical keys to all the insect families and a brief blurb and some illustrations of the creatures. Essential when you stumble on an unfamiliar arthropod in one of your samples and wish to know what it is! Used as a textbook, but not easy for beginners.

Johansson,A; Johansson,F 1992 Effects of two different caddisfly case structures on predation by a dragonfly larva. Aquatic Insects 14 (2) 73-84.

Jones,TS and Resh,VH 1988 Movements of adult aquatic insects along a Montana (USA) springbrook. Aquatic insects, 10(2) 99-104. PDF
     Abstract: " The occurrence and movement patterns of adult insects along a forested springbrook near Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, were studied during three 15-day periods from 19 June through 9 August 1985, using a two-sided Malaise trap. Of the Plecoptera, numbers of males and gravid females of Malenka flexura gravid females of Zapada frigida and total numbers of Paraperla wilsoni were significantly higher for downstream-flying adults during one to three periods. Of the Trichoptera, numbers of males of Anagepetus debilis were significantly higher for upstream flying adults during one period, and males of Lepidostoma cascadense and gravid females of L. spicata were significantly higher for downstream-flying adults during another period. In none of the 26 species examined in these three orders did females show a statistically significant pattern of upstream flight."

Juras,M; Albertson,LK; Cahoon,J and Johnson,E 2018 Incorporating macroinvertebrate biological structures into gravel-bedded stream fluid dynamics using 3D CFD modelling. Ecological Engineering 119:19-28. Abstract


Kashian DR, Prusha BA, Clements WH. 2004 Influence of total organic carbon and UV-B radiation on zinc toxicity and bioaccumulation in aquatic communities. Environmental Science & Technology. 38(23):6371-6376.
     Abstract: "The effects of total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-B radiation on Zn toxicity and bioaccumulation in a Rocky Mountain stream community were assessed in a 10-d microcosm experiment. We predicted that TOC would mitigate Zn toxicity and that the combined effects of Zn and UV-B would be greater than Zn alone. However, TOC did not mitigate Zn toxicity in this study. In fact, treatments with TOC plus Zn had significantly lower community respiration as compared with the controls and Zn concentrations associated with the periphyton increased in the presence of TOC. UV-B had no additive effect on periphyton Zn accumulation or community respiration. Heptageniid mayflies (Ephemeroptera) were particularly sensitive to Zn, and reduced abundances were observed in all Zn treatments. UV-B did not additionally impact Heptageniid abundances; however UV-B did have a greater effect on macroinvertebrate drift than Zn alone. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (groups typically classified as sensitive to disturbance) were found in highest numbers in the drift of UV-B + Zn treatments. Measures of Zn accumulation in the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis, periphyton biomass, and total macroinvertebrate abundance were not sufficiently sensitive to differentiate effects of TOC, UV-B, and Zn. These results indicate that UV-B and TOC affect Zn bioavailability and toxicity by impacting species abundance, behavior, and ecosystem processes. "

Keiper, J. B. and B. A. Foote. 1996 A simple rearing chamber for lotic insect larvae. Hydrobiologia 337:137-139.

Kerr,JD and Wiggins,GB 1993 Larval taxonomy in North American Lepidostomatidae. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Trichoptera, Sweden, 1992, C. Otto (ed.), pp 117-121. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Kiffney,PM and Clements,WH 1993 Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by benthic invertebrates at the Arkansas River, Colorado. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12, 1507-1517.

Kiffney,PM and Clements,WH 1994 Effects of heavy metals on a macroinvertebrate assemblage from a Rocky Mountain stream in experimental microcosms. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13 (4) 511-523.

Kirby,W 1813 Strepsiptera, a new order of insects proposed; and the characters of the order, with those of its genera, laid down. Transactions of the Linnean Society, London, 11, 86-122.
     The Reverend William Kirby is considered a father of entomology. He studied insects in England in the late 1700's and early 1800's. Here are some quotes from this paper; " When we consider the vast number of non-descript species, with which, since Linné gave the last finish to his System of Entomology, the European cabinets of insects have been inundated, it seems remarkable that few or none have hitherto been discovered which will not arrange under some one or another of his orders:" and in a footnote he names the order Trichoptera. " If these remarks appear to entomologists well founded, and it be thought right to consider Phryganea as constituting a new order, I think it might be distinguished, since the wings of all the known species are hairy, by the name of Trichoptera. "

Kjer,KM 2004 Aligned 18S and insect phylogeny. Systematic biology, 53(3), pp.506-514. PDF
     Abstract: "The nuclear small subunit rRNA (18S) has played a dominant role in the estimation of relationships among insect orders from molecular data. In previous studies, 18S sequences have been aligned by unadjusted automated approaches (computer alignments that are not manually readjusted), most recently with direct optimization (simultaneous alignment and tree building using a program called ”POY”). Parsimony has been the principal optimality criterion. Given the problems associated with the alignment of rRNA, and the recent availability of the doublet model for the analysis of covarying sites using Bayesian MCMC analysis, a different approach is called for in the analysis of these data. In this paper, nucleotide sequence data from the 18S small subunit rRNA gene of insects are aligned manually with reference to secondary structure, and analyzed under Bayesian phylogenetic methods with both GTR+I+G and doublet models in MrBayes. A credible phylogeny of Insecta is recovered that is independent of the morphological data and (unlike many other analyses of 18S in insects) not contradictory to traditional ideas of insect ordinal relationships based on morphology. Hexapoda, including Collembola, are monophyletic. Paraneoptera are the sister taxon to a monophyletic Holometabola but weakly supported. Ephemeroptera are supported as the sister taxon of Neoptera, and this result is interpreted with respect to the evolution of direct sperm transfer and the evolution of flight. Many other relationships are well-supported but several taxa remain problematic, e.g., there is virtually no support for relationships among orthopteroid orders. A website is made available that provides aligned 18S data in formats that include structural symbols and Nexus formats."

Kjer,KM; Blahnik,RJ and Holzenthal,RW 2001 Phylogeny of Trichoptera (Caddisflies): Characterization of signal and noise within multiple datasets. Systematic Biology, 50: 781–816. PDF
     Abstract: "Trichoptera are holometabolous insects with aquatic larvae that, together with the Lepidoptera, make up the Amphiesmenoptera. Despite extensive previous morphological work, little phylogenetic agreement has been reached about the relationship among the three suborders-Annulipalpia, Spicipalpia, and Integripalpia- or about the monophyly of Spicipalpia. In an effort to resolve this conflict, we sequenced fragments of the large and small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNAs (1078 nt; D1, D3, V4-5), the nuclear elongation factor 1α gene (EF-1α; 1098 nt), and a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI; 411 nt). Seventy adult and larval morphological characters were reanalyzed and added to molecular data in a combined analysis. We evaluated signal and homoplasy in each of the molecular datasets and attempted to rank the particular datasets according to how appropriate they were for inferring relationships among suborders. This evaluation included testing for conflict among datasets, comparing tree lengths among alternative hypotheses, measuring the left-skew of tree-length distributions from maximally divergent sets of taxa, evaluating the recovery of expected clades, visualizing whether or not substitutions were accumulating with time, and estimating nucleotide compositional bias.
Although all these measures cast doubt on the reliability of the deep-level signal coming from the nucleotides of the COI and EF-1α genes, these data could still be included in combined analyses without overturning the results from the most conservative marker, the rRNA. The different datasets were found to be evolving under extremely different rates.
A site-specific likelihood method for dealing with combined data with nonoverlapping parameters was proposed, and a similar weighting scheme under parsimony was evaluated.
Among our phylogenetic conclusions, we found Annulipalpia to be the most basal of the three suborders, with Spicipalpia and Integripalpia forming a clade. Monophyly of Annulipalpia and Integripalpia was conŽfirmed, but the relationships among Spicipalpians remain equivocal. ["

Kjer,KM; Blahnik,RJ and Holzenthal,RW 2002 Phylogeny of caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zoologica Scripta, 31(1), pp.83-91. PDF
     Abstract: "Trichoptera are holometabolous insects with aquatic larvae that, together with the Lepidoptera, comprise the Amphiesmenoptera. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses and progress on our ongoing data collection are summarized. Fragments of the large and small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNAs (D1, D3, V4–5), the nuclear elongation factor 1 alpha gene and a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) were sequenced, and molecular data were combined with previously published morphological data. Equally and differentially weighted parsimony analyses were conducted in order to present a phylogeny of Trichoptera, including 43 of 45 families. Our phylogeny closely resembles that proposed by Herbert Ross with respect to the relationships among suborders, with a monophyletic Annulipalpia at the base of the tree, and a clade consisting of Spicipalpia plus a monophyletic Integripalpia. The monophyly of Spicipalpia is weakly supported in the combined equally weighted analysis, and Spicipalpia is paraphyletic in the differentially weighted analysis. Within Integripalpia, our phylogeny recovered monophyletic Plenitentoria, Brevitentoria and Sericostomatoidea. Leptoceroidea was unresolved in the equally weighted analysis and monophyletic in the differentially weighted analysis. Within Annulipalpia, we recovered a basal but paraphyletic Philopotamoidea and a monophyletic Hydropsychoidea."

Kjer,KM; Thomas,JA; Zhou,X; Frandsen,PB; Prendini,E and Holzenthal,RW; 2016 Progress on the phylogeny of caddisflies (Trichoptera). PDF
     Abstract: "We present our current phylogenetic hypothesis on the phylogeny of Trichoptera, generated from an analysis of over 7000 nucleotides from 18S and 28S rRNA, EF-1α, COI, and CAD. We corroborate our earlier hypotheses, with results that include a monophyletic Annulipalpia, Integripalpia, Brevitentoria, and Plenitentoria. Monophyly of Psychomyioidea, Pseudoneureclipsidae, and Grumichellinae were confirmed. The "Spicipalpian" families were again found to be paraphyletic, and most closely related to Integripalpia. Ptilocolepidae was not found to be monophyletic, but support for its paraphyly was so weak that we interpret our results as unresolved. We interpret our measures of branch support, and present a collapsed phylogeny that more conservatively represents our current hypothesis. We discuss how these data can eventually be merged into other sources of data, such as COI barcode data and transcriptomes, and suggest that a single huge analysis of all data, with all taxa, is unnecessary if analyses can be phylogenetically subdivided into many separate parts, using transcriptome data to fix the deepest nodes, and allowing faster evolving data to be more appropriately targeted to nodes closer to the tips of the tree."

Kohler,SL and Hoiland,WK 2001 Population regulation in an aquatic insect: the role of disease Ecology 82(8) 2294-2305. Abstract and first page

Kolenati, FA 1848 Genera et species Trichopterorum. Pars prior. Acta Regiae Bohemoslovenicae Societatis Scientiarum, Prague, 6: 1-108.
     Working in eastern Europe during the 1800's, Friedrich Kolenati (Wikipedia) described the caddis family Limnephilidae and many other interesting things in this paper.

Kolenati, FA 1859 Genera et species Trichopterorum. Part II Moscou.

Kolar, CS and Rahel, FJ 1993 Interaction of a biotic factor (predator presence) and an abiotic factor (low oxygen) as an influence on benthic invertebrate communities. Oecologia 95(2) 210 - 219 DOI: 10.1007/BF00323492 Abstract

Koslucher,DG and Minshall,GW 1973 Food habits of some benthic invertebrates in a northern cool-desert stream (Deep Creek, Curlew Valley, Idaho-Utah). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 92(3) 441-452. Abstract

Kwong,L; Mendez,PK and Resh,VH 2011 Case-repair in 3 genera of caddisflies (Trichoptera) Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Majecka,K; Majecki,J and Morse,J (Editors) Zoosymposia 5: 269-278 PDF


LaFontaine,G 1981 Caddisflies. Winchester Press, Piscataway,NJ 336 pg

Lamberti,,GA; Feminella,JW and Resh,VH 1987 Herbivory and intraspecific competition in a stream caddisfly population Oecologia 73 (1) 75 - 81 DOI: 10.1007/BF00376980 Abstract
     Studies Helicopsyche borealis in Northern California.

Leach,WE 1815 in Brewster's Edinburg Encyclopedia 9(1) Entomology pp 52-172.

Lehmkuhl,DM and Kerst,CD 1979 Zoogeographical affinities and identification of central Arctic caddisflies (Trichoptera). Musk-Ox 25: 12-28.

Lepneva, SG 1966 Fauna SSSR, Rucheiniki, vol.2, no.2. Lichinki i kukolki podotryada tsel'nosh-chupikovykh. Zoologicheskii Institut Akademii Nauk SSSR, n.s. 95 [In Russian. Translated into English as: Fauna of the U.S.S.R.; Trichoptera, vol. 2, no. 2. Larvae and Pupae of Integripalpia. Published by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971.]

Lessard,JL; Merritt,RW and Cummins,KW 2003 Spring growth of caddisflies (Limnephilidae: Trichoptera) in response to marine-derived nutrients and food type in a Southeast Alaskan stream. International Journal of Limnology 39(1) 3 - 14. PDF

Li,YJ and Morse,JC 1997 Phylogeny and classification of Psychomyiidae (Trichoptera) genera. Pages 271-276 in Proceedings of the 8th International Sympolium on Trichoptera (R. W. Holzenthal, and O. S. Flint, Jr., eds.). Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio.

Liess,M and Schulz,R 1996 Chronic effects of short-term contamination with the pyethroid insecticide fenvalerate on the caddisfly Limnephilus lunatus. Hydrobiologia 324, 99-106.

Llyod,JT 1921 The biology of the North American caddisfly larvae. Bulletin of the Llyod Library 21.

Löfstedt,C; Hansson,BS; Petersson, E; Valeur,P and Richards,A 1994 Pheromonal secretions from glands on the 5th abdominal sternite of hydropsychid and rhyacophilid caddisflies (Trichoptera). Journal of Chemical Ecology (20)153-170.

Lowe, WH and FR Hauer 1999 Ecology of two large, net-spinning caddisfly species in a mountain stream: distribution, abundance, and metabolic response to a thermal gradient. Can. J. Zool./Rev. can. zool. 77(10): 1637-1644. Abstract


Mackay,RJ 1981 A miniature laboratory stream powered by air bubbles. Hydrobiologia 83: 383-385.

Mackay,RJ; Wiggins,GB 1979 Ecological diversity in Trichoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 24, 185-208.

Malm,T; Johanson,KA; and Wahlberg,N 2013 The evolutionary history of Trichoptera (Insecta): A case of successful adaptation to life in freshwater. Systematic Entomology, 38(3), 459-473. Full Text

Mani,MS 1968 Ecology and biogeography of high altitude insects (Vol. 4). Springer-Verlag New York 541 pages.

Martin,ID and Mackay,RJ 1982 Interpreting the diet of Rhyacophila larvae (Trichoptera) from gut analyses: an evaluation of techniques. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60(5), 783-789.

Martinson,RJ; Ward,JV 1982 Life history and ecology of Hesperophylax occidentalis (Banks) (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) from three springs in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 1:41-47.

McCafferty, WP 1983 Aquatic Entomology: The Fishermens Guide and Ecologists Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. 480 pages.

McCullagh,BS; Wissinger,SA and Marcus,JM 2015 Identifying PCR primers to facilitate molecular phylogenetics in Caddisflies (Trichoptera). Zoological Systematics, 40(4) 459 PDF
     Abstract: "The molecular phylogenetics of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) is well studied, but that of Trichoptera (caddisflies), the sister clade of Lepidoptera, is less studied. The PCR primer libraries developed for lepidopteran phylogenetics might work in Trichoptera. DNA from 8 caddisfly species (Asynarchus nigriculus (Banks, 1908), Grammotaulius lorettae Denning, 1941, Hesperophylax occidentalis (Banks, 1908), Limnephilus externus Hagen, 1861, Limnephilus picturatus McLachlan, 1875, Limnephilus secludens Banks, 1914, Limnephilus sublunatus Provancher, 1877 and Agrypnia deflata (Milne, 1931)) was used to screen for amplification. 107 primer pairs for 45 nuclear and 3 mitochondrial genes were tested. Primers for 1 new gene (40S ribosomal protein S2 (RPS2)) and 8 genes previously used in Trichopteran phylogenetics were recovered (16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CAD), cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and RNA polymerase-II (POL-II)). New primer pairs extended the genomic region sampled for many genes. Evolution rates among loci varied by 2 orders of magnitude. Differences among evolution rates and modes of inheritance offer flexible tools for resolving phylogenetic questions and examining genome evolution in the Trichoptera. Screening libraries of PCR primers is a useful approach for identifying PCR primers in related taxa with limited molecular genetic resources."

McLachlan,R 1875 Descriptions de plusieurs nevropteres-planipennes et trichopteres nouveaus de l'ile de Celebes et de quelques especis nouvelles de Dipseudopsis avec considerations sur ce genre. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 18:1-32, plates 1-2.

McLaughlin,JE; Frandsen,PB; Mey,W and Pauls,SU 2019 A preliminary phylogeny of Rhyacophilidae with peference to Fansipangana and the monophyly of Rhyacophila. Zoosymposia, 14, pp.189-192. PDF
     Abstract: "The phylogeny of Rhyacophilidae was explored with 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Eighty one rhyacophilids were included in the analysis. We found that although Rhyacophilidae was recovered as monophyletic, intrafamilial relationships are not well-resolved using this dataset. Bootstrap support was poor for intrageneric relationships and additional data will be required to present a more robust hypothesis. The recovered phylogeny places Fansipangana as the sister taxon of the rest of Rhyacophilidae. We found that Himalopsyche was nested inside the genus Rhyacophila with the verrula group sister to Himalopsyche and remaining Rhyacophila. These results and possible relationships should be tested with a more extensive data set."

McCullough,DA and Minshall,GW and Cushing,CE 1979 Bioenergetics of lotic filter-feeding insects Simulium spp. (Diptera) and Hydropsyche occidentalis (Trichoptera) and their function in controlling organic transport in streams. Ecology 60(3) 585-596. Abstract

Mecom,JO 1972a Feeding habits of Trichoptera in a mountain stream. Oikos 23: 401-407. Abstract and first page

Mecom,JO 1972b Productivity and distribution of Trichoptera larvae in a Colorado mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 40(2): 151 - 176. ISSN: 0018-8158 (Paper) 1573-5117 (Online) DOI: 10.1007/BF00016789 Abstract
     He collected in the St. Vrain River of Colorado in the late 1960s. Agapetus sp., Arctopsyche grandis, Brachycentrus americanus, Ecclisomyia maculosa, Hydropsyche sp., Hydropsyche occidentalis, Helicopsyche borealis, Leptocella sp., Neothremma alicia, Rhyacophila acropedes (now called R. brunnea), and Sortosa sp. [Now Dolophiloides] were taken at eight sites ranging from 1565 to 3200 m in altitude. He also notes the elevations where these species are most commonly found.

Mecom,JO 1970 Unusual case-building behaviour of Hydropsyche occidentalis larvae (Trichoptera : Hydropsychidae). Entomological News 81:33-35.

Mecom,JO and Cummins,KW 1964 A preliminary study of the trophic relationships of the larvae of Brachycentrus americanus (Banks) (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 83: 233-243.

Merrill,D 1969 The distribution of case recognition in ten families of caddis larvae (Trichoptera). Animal Behavior 17(3)486-493. PDF

Merritt,RW; Cummins,KW (Eds.) 1996 An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 3rd ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 862 pages.
     The best all around aquatic insect key and general reference for North America until the latest edition in 2008.

Merritt,RW; Cummins,KW and Berg,MB (Eds.) 2008 An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 4th ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 1158 pages.
     The latest edition of a classic aquatic entomology key. Required for all serious aquatic insect identification in America.

Metcalfe,AN; Kennedy,TA; Marks,JC; Smith,AD and Muehlbauer,JD 2020 Spatial population structure of a widespread aquatic insect in the Colorado River Basin: Evidence for a Hydropsyche oslari species complex. Freshwater Science, 39(2), pp.309-320. PDF

Mihuc,TB and Mihuc,JR 1995 Trophic ecology of five shredders in a Rocky Mountain stream. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10 (3) 209-216.
     Abstract: "The trophic ecology of five shredder taxa found in Mink Creek, Idaho was determined in laboratory food quality experiments to assess the obligate or facultative nature of resource utilization among lotic taxa commonly referred to as detritivores. The experiments tested resource assimilation for each taxon among three major resources available to primary consumers in streams; periphyton, fine particulate detrital material (FPM) and coarse particulate detrital material (CPM). Growth of each taxon was determined on each resource in laboratory experiments conducted at 10 degree C. Growth results indicate that only one of the five taxa (middle-late instar Dicosmoecus atripes) was an obligate CPM detritivore. The remaining four taxa (Amphinemura banksi, Lepidostoma sp., Podmosta delicatula, and Zapada cinctipes) were generalists capable of growth on at least two of the three resource types. All four generalists exhibited growth on periphyton and CPM resources suggesting that these taxa can utilize both autochthonous and allochthonous resources. Our results do not support the idea that taxa with similar mouthpart morphology, specifically shredders, exhibit similar trophic relationships. "

Milne,LJ 1931. Three new Canadian Prophryganea (Phryganeidae, Trichoptera). Canadian Entomologist 63
     The genus Prophryganea was renamed Agrypnia.

Milne,LJ 1934 Studies in North American Trichoptera. Part 1. Cambridge, Mass.: Author's publication 19 pp.

Milne,LJ 1936 Studies in North American Trichoptera. Part 3. Cambridge, Mass. : Author's publication. 128 pages

Milne,LJ and Milne,MJ 1938. The Arctopsychidae of continental America north of Mexico (Trichoptera). Bulletin of the Brooklin Entomological Society 33:97-110.

Milne,MJ 1938. Case-building in Trichoptera as an inherited response to oxygen deficiency. Canadian Entomologist 70:177-180.

Milne, MJ and Milne,LJ 1939 Evolutionary trends in caddis worm case construction. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 32:533-542.

Milne,MJ 1939 Immature North American Trichoptera. Psyche 46:9-19.

Milner,AM 1987 Colonization and ecological development of new streams in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. Freshwater Biology, 18(1), pp.53-70.

Misof,B; Liu,S; Meusemann,K; Peters,RS; Donath,A; Mayer,C; Frandsen,PB; Ware,J; Flouri,T; Beutel,RG; Niehuis,O; et al. 2014 Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. Science, 346(6210), pp.763-767. PDF
     Abstract: "Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relationships. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects."

Mogren,CL and Trumble,JT 2010 The impacts of metals and metalloids on insect behavior. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 135: 1-17. Full Text

Moh'd,AAM; Nachappa,P; Ruiter,DE; Givens,DR and Fairchild,MP 2022 Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of montane and alpine lakes of northern Colorado (USA). Western North American Naturalist, 82(3), pp.563-576.
     Abstract: "Adult caddisflies of 138 montane and alpine lentic habitats, primarily lakes, of 7 northern Colorado counties are reported for the first time. Our objective was to provide species records of adult caddisflies from high-altitude lentic habitats that may potentially be impacted by current and future global climate change. Field collections of adults and captive rearing of larval specimens were coupled with unpublished records and an extensive review of published records, resulting in 541 confirmed caddisfly species records. Forty-nine caddisfly species, representing 24% of all known Colorado species are documented. Seven families and 21 genera are represented. The Limnephilidae comprised 76% of the 49 recorded species. The other 6 families were represented by only 1–4 species. One species was documented from alpine lakes only, 25 species from both montane and alpine lakes, 22 species from montane lakes only, and 1 species record could not be attributed to an elevation zone. We documented 6 regionally endemic species, 2 of which were recognized as vulnerable to extinction. Montane and alpine lakes are vulnerable ecosystems likely to be impacted by climate change. Comprehensive faunal surveys are key to understanding long-term biodiversity changes and establishing conservation needs and priorities. Species lists of taxa are important to monitor future faunal biodiversity changes."

de Moor,FC and Ivanov,VD 2008 Global diversity of caddisflies (Trichoptera: Insecta) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595, 393-407. PDF
     Abstract: "The not yet uploaded Trichoptera World Checklist (TWC) [http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/search.htm], as at July 2006, recorded 12,627 species, 610 genera and 46 families of extant and in addition 488 species, 78 genera and 7 families of fossil Trichoptera. [as of 12Jan2024 the web address is https://trichopt.app.clemson.edu/welcome.php] An analysis of the 2001 TWC list of present-day Trichoptera diversity at species, generic/subgeneric and family level along the selected Afrotropical, Neotropical, Australian, Oriental, Nearctic and Palaearctic (as a unit or assessed as Eastern and Western) regions reveals uneven distribution patterns. The Oriental and Neotropical are the two most species diverse with 47–77% of the species in widespread genera being recorded in these two regions. Five Trichoptera families comprise 55% of the world's species and 19 families contain fewer than 30 species per family. Ten out of 620 genera contain 29% of the world's known species. Considerable underestimates of Trichoptera diversity for certain regions are recognised. Historical processes in Trichoptera evolution dating back to the middle and late Triassic reveal that the major phylogenetic differentiation in Trichoptera had occurred during the Jurrasic and early Cretaceous. The breakup of Gondwana in the Cretaceous led to further isolation and diversification of Trichoptera. High species endemism is noted to be in tropical or mountainous regions correlated with humid or high rainfall conditions. Repetitive patterns of shared taxa between biogeographical regions suggest possible centres of origin, vicariant events or distribution routes. Related taxa associations between different regions suggest that an alternative biogeographical map reflecting Trichoptera distribution patterns different from the Wallace (The Geographical Distribution of Animals: With a Study of the Relations of Living and Extinct Faunas as Elucidating the Past Changes of the Earth's Surface, Vol. 1, 503 pp., Vol. 2, 607 pp., Macmillan, London, 1876) proposed biogeography patterns should be considered. Anthropogenic development threatens biodiversity and the value of Trichoptera as important functional components of aquatic ecosystems, indicator species of deteriorating conditions and custodians of environmental protection are realised."

Morse,JC 1981 A phylogeny and classification of family group taxa of Leptoceridae(Trichoptera:). Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trichoptera, Perugia, 1980, G.P. Moretti (ed.),pp 257-264. The Hague: Junk.

Morse,JC 1993 A checklist of the Trichoptera of North America including Greenland and Mexico. Transactions of American Entomological Society 119 1, 47-93.

Morse, JC 1997 Phylogeny of Trichoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 42: 427-450. (doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.427) Abstract
     Abstract: "The vitality of the phylogenetic dialogue in trichopterology, especially since 1967, is evidenced by the high quality and large number of published phylogenetic inferences concerning caddisflies and the continuing spirited exchange of opinions about some differences among those ideas. Monophyly for Trichoptera seems well argued. Monophyly for suborder Annulipalpia sensu stricto also is widely acknowledged, as is monophyly for suborder Integripalpia sensu stricto. Various postulated relationships of Hydrobiosidae, Rhyacophilidae, Glossosomatidae, and Hydroptilidae (= "Spicipalpia") are less convincing. Phylogenies for several groups of families within Annulipalpia and Integripalpia have been proposed and relationships within at least 126 infrafamilial taxa also have been inferred."

Morse,JC 2020 Index to key words, taxa, geographical distribution, and authors. Zoosymposia, 18(1), pp.191-201. PDF
     This paper is pages of alphabetically arranged caddisfly names, authors and some keywords discussed in Zoosymposium 18, Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Not much fun to read, yet quite useful for scholars of Trichoptera.

Morse,JC; Frandsen,PB; Graf,W and Thomas,JA 2019 Diversity and ecosystem services of Trichoptera. Insects, 10(5), p.125. PDF
     Abstract: "The holometabolous insect order Trichoptera (caddisflies) includes more known species than all of the other primarily aquatic orders of insects combined. They are distributed unevenly; with the greatest number and density occurring in the Oriental Biogeographic Region and the smallest in the East Palearctic. Ecosystem services provided by Trichoptera are also very diverse and include their essential roles in food webs, in biological monitoring of water quality, as food for fish and other predators (many of which are of human concern), and as engineers that stabilize gravel bed sediment. They are especially important in capturing and using a wide variety of nutrients in many forms, transforming them for use by other organisms in freshwaters and surrounding riparian areas. The general pattern of evolution for trichopteran families is becoming clearer as more genes from more taxa are sequenced and as morphological characters are becoming understood in greater detail. This increasingly credible phylogeny provides a foundation for interpreting and hypothesizing the functional traits of this diverse order of freshwater organisms and for understanding the richness of the ecological services corresponding with those traits. Our research also is gaining insight into the timing of evolutionary diversification in the order. Correlations for the use of angiosperm plant material as food and case construction material by the earliest ancestors of infraorder Plenitentoria-by at least 175 Ma-may provide insight into the timing of the origin of angiosperms."

Morse,JC and Holzenthal,RW 1996 Trichoptera Genera. In: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 3rd ed. Eds: Merritt,RW; Cummins,KW Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 350-386.

Morse,JC; Holzenthal,RW 2008 Chapter 18: Trichoptera Genera. In: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 4th ed. Eds: Merritt,RW; Cummins,KW; Berg,MB Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 481-552.

Morse,JC and Lianfang Yang 2004 The world subgenera of Glossosoma Curtis (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae), with a revision of the chinese species of Glossosoma subgenera synafophora Martynov and protogossa Ross. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington: Vol. 106, No. 1, pp.52-73. Abstract

Mosely,ME 1919 Scent-organs in the genus Hydroptila (Trichoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 393-397, plates 18-19.

Mosely,ME 1923 Scent-organs in the genus Hydroptila (Trichoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 291-294, plates 14-15.


Neave,F 1933 Ecology of two species of Trichoptera in Lake Winnipeg. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 29(1/2):17-28.

Neldner,KH Pennak, RW 1955Seasonal faunal variations in a Colorado alpine pond. American Midland Naturalist 53(2) 419-430. Abstract
     Mentions Limnephilus sp. larvae among many other species found in Trail Ridge Pond in Rocky Mountain National Park in Northern Colorado.

Nielsen,A 1948 Postembryonic development and biology of the Hydroptilidae. Biologiske Skrifter, Det Kongelige danske Videnskabernes Selskab 5: 1-200.

Nielsen,A 1980 A comparative study of the genital segments and genital chamber in female Trichoptera. Biologiske Skrifter, Det Kongelige danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 23(1), 1-200.

Nimmo,AP 1965 A new species of Psychoglypha Ross from western Canada, with notes on several other species of Limnephilidae (Trichoptera). Canadian Journal of Zoology 43 (5): 781-787.

Nimmo,AP 1971 The adult Rhyacophilidae and Limnephilidae (Trichoptera) of Alberta and eastern British Columbia and their post glacial origin. Quaestiones Entomologicae 73: 3-234.

Nimmo,AP 1987. The adult Arctopsyche and Hydropsyche (Trichoptera) of Canada and adjacent United States. Questiones Entomologicae 23:1-189.

Nimmo,AP 1991 Seven new species of Limnephilus from Western North America with description of female of L. pallens (Banks) (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Limnephilini). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 93 2, 499-508.

Nimmo,AP 1995 New species of Hydropsychidae and Limnephilidae (Insecta, Trichoptera) from the far east of Russia, with description of a new genus of Limnephilidae (Limnephilini). Occasional Papers on Trichoptera Taxonomy 1, 1-15.


Olden,JD; Hoffman,AL; Monroe,JB; and Poff,NL 2004 Movement behaviour and dynamics of an aquatic insect in a stream benthic landscape. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1135-1146. PDF.
     Discusses the behavior of Agapetus boulderensis with variation in current velocites and algal habitat.

Ogilvie,GA and Clifford,HF 1986 Life histories, production, and microdistribution of two caddisflies (Trichoptera) in a Rocky Mountain Stream. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64(12)2706-2716.

Otto,C and Svensson,BS 1981 Why do Potamophylax cingulatus (Steph.)(Trichoptera) larvae aggregate at pupation?. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trichoptera (pp. 285-291). Springer Netherlands.
     Abstract: " In stream-living Potamophylax cingulatus, current velocity was found to be an ultimate factor in guiding settlement of the larvae prior to pupation, areas of high current velocity being avoided. In areas suitable for pupation, i.e. in a low current regime, the larvae formed aggregations only under certain stones. Most pupae were found in large (> 40 inds.) aggregations, where also hatching success was highest. Infestation by a chironomid larva, Polypedilum fallax Joh., peaked at intermediate aggregation size. We suggest pupal aggregations to be formed in order to reduce the risk of becoming a victim of the chironomid. "


Palmquist,K; Jepson,P and Jenkins,J 2008 Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27(8)1728-1734 Abstract

Parisek,CA; Marchetti,MP and Cover,MR 2023 Morphological plasticity in a caddisfly that co-occurs in lakes and streams. Freshwater Science, 42(2), pp.161-175. PDF

Parker,CR and Wiggins,GB 1985 The nearctic caddisfly genus Hesperophylax (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 61(10)2443-2472.

Peck,DL and Smith,SD 1978 A revision of the Rhyacophila coloradensis complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). Melanderia 27, 1-24.

Peckarsky,BL 1980 Influence of detritus on colonization of stream invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37, 957-963.

Peckarsky,BL 1983 Biotic interactions or abiotic limitations? A model of lotic community structure. In: Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Eds: Fontaine III,Thomas D; Bartell,Steven M Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 303-323.

Peckarsky,BL 1985 Do predaceous stoneflies and siltation affect the structure of stream insect communities colonizing enclosures? Canadian Journal of Zoology (63) 1519-1530. PDF

Peckarsky,BL; Dodson,SI and Conklin,DJ 1985 A key to the aquatic insects of streams in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountain Biological Lab, including chironomid larvae from streams and ponds. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver CO. 47 pages.
     The first local Gunnison County species list and key. Some names have changed and more species have been found since this publication.

Peckarsky,BL; Fraissinet,PR; Penton,MA; Conklin Jr.,DJ 1990 Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Northeastern North America. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 442 pages.
     Not about western insects, but useful to the genus level.

Pennack,RW and Ward,JV 1986 Interstital faunal communities of the hyporheic and adjacent groundwater biotopes of a Colorado mountain stream. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Suppl. 74 3, 356-396.

Perry,SA; Perry,WB; Stanford,JA 1986 Effects of stream regulation on density, growth, and emergence of two mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae) and a caddisfly (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in two Rocky Mountain rivers (U.S.A.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 64(3):656-666.

Peck,DL; Smith,SD 1978 A revision of the Rhyacophila coloradensis complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). Melanderia 27, 1-24.

Pictet,FJ 1834 Recherches pour servir à l'histoire et l'anatomie des Phryganides. A. Cherbuliez, Geneva.

Piccardo,M; Bertoli,M; Pastorino,P; Barceló,D; Provenza,F; Lesa,D; Anselmi,S; Elia,AC; Prearo,M; Pizzul,E and Renzi,M 2021 Lethal and sublethal responses of Hydropsyche pellucidula (Insecta, Trichoptera) to commercial polypropylene microplastics after different preconditioning treatments. Toxics, 9(10), p.256. PDF
     Abstract: "Microplastics (MPs) pose biological and chemical hazards in aquatic and terrestrial food webs across the globe. Research on microplastic contamination has long focused on marine ecosystems, whereas the toxicological impact on freshwater organisms is still little explored. In this study, the lethal and sublethal response of the freshwater macroinvertebrate Hydropsyche pellucidula exposed to polypropylene MPs after different pre-conditioning treatments was assessed. Field samples were collected in a riverine system (Vipacco river; northeast Italy) to assess the characteristics of the MPs in the aquatic environment Both water and sediment were contaminated by MPs (3.73 ± 2.11 items m-3 per min and 3.33 ± 4.16 items dm-3, respectively). The chemical MPs composition included polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyurethane, polyamide, polypropylene, and polyethylene. Polypropylene (PP), although not the most abundant polymer recorded in the study area, was preferred over the other types according to its abundance in freshwater and H. pellucidula feeding behavior. A housing test was performed to recreate the natural conditions of larvae sampled for a reliable response to the ecotoxicological tests. The microplastics underwent either preconditioning with Vipacco River water (PP-river) and surfactant Triton X-100 (PP-sf) or no pre-treatment (PP). Submersion of microplastics in 10 µg L-1 of surfactant solution for 24 h was sufficient to induce consistent spectral changes and modify the chemical profile of the plastic surface. Mortality rate differed according to treatment: PP and PP-river > positive control > PP-sf > negative control. Integrated biomarker response (IBRv2) and analysis of oxidative stress biomarker levels showed a greater response of superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) in larvae treated with PP conditioned in surfactant. Our findings enhance knowledge on the toxicity of PP and conditioning phases on H. pellucidula larvae."

Poff,NL and Ward,JV 1988 Use of occupied Glossosoma verdona (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) cases by early instars of Baetis spp.(Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in a Rocky Mountain stream. Entomological news (USA).

Poff,NL and JV Ward. 1992 Heterogeneous currents and algal resources mediate in situ foraging activity of a mobile stream grazer. Oikos 65:465-478. PDF

Poff,NL; Wellnitz,TA and Monroe,JB 2003 Redundancy among three herbivorous insects across an experimental current velocity gradient. Oecologia 134:262-269 PDF

Prather,AL and Morse,JC 2001 Eastern Nearctic Rhyacophila species, with revision of the Rhyacophila invaria group (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 127 1, 85-166. ERRATUM http://entweb.clemson.edu/research/rhyacophila.htm
     Has updated keys to Eastern Rhyacophila Females, Males, Larvae.

Provancher,MA 1877 Petite fauna entomologique du Canada. Trichoptères. Naturaliste Canadien 9: 241-244.

Prusha,BA and Clements,WH 2004 Landscape attributes, dissolved organic C, and metal bioaccumulation in aquatic macroinvertebrates (Arkansas River Basin, Colorado). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23 (2) 327-339. Abstract



Rader,RB and Belish, TA 1999 Influence of mild to severe flow alterations on invertebrates in three mountain streams. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 15(4)353 - 363.
     Quote: "Water abstraction (extent and timing of diversion) could be managed to minimize risks to downstream ecological resources."

Resh, V. H. 1972 A technique for rearing caddisflies (Trichoptera). Canadian Entomologist 104: 1959-1961.
     Abstract: " Viable egg masses were obtained from adult caddisflies during revival from CO2 anesthetization. The egg masses were maintained in aerated water and the eggs hatched in 1 or 2 days. Larvae were supplied various food sources (bacteria, algae, and invertebrates) and case building materials. This technique permits casemaking and other aspects of larval behavior to be observed, and allows for complete description of associated larvae. "

Resh,VH; Lamberti,GA and Wood,JR 1984 Biology of the caddisfly Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen): a comparison of North American populations. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology, (4)172-180 Abstract and first page

Richards,C and Braendle,B 1997 Caddis Super Hatches: Hatch Guide for the United States. Frank Amato Publications, Portland, OR, 87 p.

Richardson,JS and Mackay,RJ 1984 A comparison of the life history and growth of Limnephilus indivisus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) in three temporary pools Archiv für Hydrobiologie 99(4)515-528.

Roble,SM and Flint,OS Jr. 2001 Nemotaulius hostilis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), a boreal caddisfly new to the Virginia fauna. Banisteria 18:35-37.

Roemhild, George 1980 Pheromone glands of microcaddisflies, (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae). Journal of Morphology 163 (1) 9-12.
     Abstract: " Previously unreported structures found on the head and thorax of several species of microcaddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described. Depending on the species, these presumptive pheromone-producing glands are found either (1) on the basal segment of the antenna, (2) on movable and immovable occipital sclerites, (3) as eversible organs from the occipital area of the head, or (4) on structures which are attached near the bases of the front wings. "

Roemhild, G. 1982 The Trichoptera of Montana with distributional and ecological notes. Northwest Science 56: 8-13.

Roline,R 1988 The effects of heavy metals pollution of the upper Arkansas River on the distribution of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 160: 3-8.
     They sampled the Arkansas River upstream and downstream of mine drainage and clean water inputs in 1979 and 1980. After compositing 3 surber samplers in the field, back at the lab they identified the macroinvertebrates to genus level and used a diversity index to evaluate the health of the macroinvertebrate community. Higher diversity is better. Diversity decreased downstream of heavy metal pollution from the Leadville Drain and California Gulch and increased downstream of clean water inputs.

del Rosario,RB; Betts,EA; Resh, VH. 2002 Cow manure in headwater streams: tracing aquatic insect responses to organic enrichment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21: 278-289 Abstract

Ross,HH 1938 Descriptions of Nearctic Caddisflies with special reference to the Illinois species. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 21:101-183.

Ross,HH 1938 Lectotypes of North American caddis flies in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Psyche 45:1-61 entire paper

Ross,HH 1941 Descriptions and records of North American Trichoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 67:35-126.

Ross,HH 1944 The Caddis Flies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Natural History Survey of Illinois 23 Los Angeles, CA. 326 pages. PDF
     This was the first overview of caddisflies in North America that has been widely used ever since. Many taxonomy changes have occured since this book was written. Visit the Integrated Taxonomic Information System http://www.itis.gov/ for assistance with old names.

Ross,HH 1946 A review of the nearctic Lepidostomatidae (Trichoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39:265-291.

Ross,HH 1947 Descriptions and records of North American Trichoptera, with synoptic notes. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 73:105-124.

Ross,HH 1949. The caddisfly genus Neothremma Banks (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 39:92-93.

Ross,HH 1950a New species of nearctic Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 40 8, 260-265.

Ross,HH 1950b Synoptic notes on some nearctic Limnephilid caddisflies (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). American Midland Naturalist 43 2, 410-429.

Ross,HH 1951 Phylogeny and biogeography of the caddisflies of the genera Agapetus and Electragapetus (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 41 (11) 347-356.

Ross,HH 1956 Evolution and classification of the mountain caddisflies. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 213 pages.

Ross,HH 1959 Trichoptera. In Freshwater Biology, 2nd edition, Edmundson,WT (ed.), Riley, New York 1024-1049.

Ross,HH 1967 The evolution and past dispersal of the Trichoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 12, 169-207.

Ross,HH; Merkley,DR 1952 An annotated key to the nearctic males of Limnephilus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). American Midland Naturalist 47:435-455. first page

Roy,D and Harper,PP 1980. Females of the Nearctic Molanna (Trichoptera: Molannidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society in Washington 82:299-236.

Ruesink,JL and Srivastava,DS 2001 Numerical and per capita responses to species loss: mechanisms maintaining ecosystem function in a community of stream insect detritivores. Oikos 93(2)221-234. Abstract

Ruiter,DE 1990 A new species of Neotrichia (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from Colorado with additions and corrections to the distributions and records of Colorado Trichoptera. Entomological News 101:88-92.
     Abstract: "Neotrichia downsi, new species is described from Jackson County, Colorado. Illustrations of the male and female genitalia are provided. Additions and corrections to the list of Colorado Trichoptera are also included. Fifteen species are added to the Colorado list, bringing the total number of species reported from Colorado to 188. "

Ruiter,DE 1995 The adult Limnephilus Leach (Trichoptera:Limnephilidae) of the new world. Vol. XI Ohio Biological Survey, College of Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 200 pages.
     All about adult Limnephilus, but definately the key to use if you're working with light trap samples or have reared specimens. We have a few zillion Limnephilus species in Gunnison County so this book is very handy.

Ruiter,DE 1999 A new species and new synonym in the genus Psychoronia (Limnephilidae), with significant records for caddisflies (Trichoptera) from western North America. Great Basin Naturalist 59:160-168. View Online

Ruiter,DE 2000 Generic key to the adult ocellate Limnephiloidea of the Western Hemisphere (Insecta: Trichoptera). Ohio Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contributions Number 5 Columbus, Ohio iv + 22p.

Ruse,LP and Herrmann,SJ 2000 Plecoptera and Trichoptera species distribution related to environmental characteristics of the metal-polluted Arkansas River, Colorado. Western North American Naturalist 60 (1) 57-65. PDF


Sánchez-Bayo,F and Wyckhuys,KA 2019 Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers. Biological conservation, 232, pp.8-27. PDF
     Abstract: "Biodiversity of insects is threatened worldwide. Here, we present a comprehensive review of 73 historical reports of insect declines from across the globe, and systematically assess the underlying drivers. Our work reveals dramatic rates of decline that may lead to the extinction of 40% of the world's insect species over the next few decades. In terrestrial ecosystems, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and dung beetles (Coleoptera) appear to be the taxa most affected, whereas four major aquatic taxa (Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera) have already lost a considerable proportion of species. Affected insect groups not only include specialists that occupy particular ecological niches, but also many common and generalist species. Concurrently, the abundance of a small number of species is increasing; these are all adaptable, generalist species that are occupying the vacant niches left by the ones declining. Among aquatic insects, habitat and dietary generalists, and pollutant-tolerant species are replacing the large biodiversity losses experienced in waters within agricultural and urban settings. The main drivers of species declines appear to be in order of importance: i) habitat loss and conversion to intensive agriculture and urbanisation; ii) pollution, mainly that by synthetic pesticides and fertilisers; iii) biological factors, including pathogens and introduced species; and iv) climate change. The latter factor is particularly important in tropical regions, but only affects a minority of species in colder climes and mountain settings of temperate zones. A rethinking of current agricultural practices, in particular a serious reduction in pesticide usage and its substitution with more sustainable, ecologically-based practices, is urgently needed to slow or reverse current trends, allow the recovery of declining insect populations and safeguard the vital ecosystem services they provide. In addition, effective remediation technologies should be applied to clean polluted waters in both agricultural and urban environments."

Schmid,F 1950 Monographie du genre Grammotaulis Kolenati (Trichoptera, Limnophilidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 57(7):317-52.

Schmid,F 1952 Le group de Lenarchus Mart. (Trichopt., Limnoph.). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 25(3): 157-210.

Schmid,F 1952 Le group de Chilostigma. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 47(1):75-163.

Schmid,F 1953 Contribution à l'étude de la sous-famille des Apataniinae (Trichoptera, Limnophilidae). I. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 96 (1-2): 109-167.

Schmid,F 1954a Contribution à l'étude de la sous-famille des Apataniinae (Trichoptera, Limnophilidae). II. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 97 (1-2): 1-74.

Schmid,F 1954b Le genre Asynarchus McL. (Trichopt., Limnoph.). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 27:57-96.

Schmid,F 1955 Contribution à l'étude des Limnophilidae (Trichoptera). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 28.

Schmid,F 1964 Some nearctic species of Grammotaulis Kol (Trichoptera, Limnophilidae). Canadian Entomologist 96(6):914-917.

Schmid,F 1970 Le genre Rhyacophila et la famille des Rhyacophilidae (Trichoptera). Memoires de la Societe Entomologique du Canada 66:1-230.

Schmid,F 1980 The insects and arachnids of Canada, part 7, The genera of Trichoptera of Canada and adjacent regions. Ontario, In French. 296pp

Schmid,F 1983 Revision des trichopteres Canadiens. III. Les Hyalopsychidae, Psychomyiidae, Goeride, Brachycentridae, Sericostomatidae, Helicopsychidae, Beraeidae, Odontoceridae, Calamoceratidae et Molannidae. Memoires de la Societe Entomologique du Canada. Volume 125, 109 pages.

Schmidt,TS; Clements,WH; Zuellig,RE; Mitchell,KA; Church,SE; Wanty,RB, ... and Lamothe,PJ 2011 Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects. Environmental science and Technology, 45(16) 7004-7010. PDF

Schmitz,EH 1959 Seasonal biotic events in two Colorado alpine tundra ponds. American Midland Naturalist, 61(2) 424-446 Abstract
     They found Limnephilus sp. in Washboiler Pond and Dead Hat Pond on the western slope of the Continental Divide in Summit County, Colorado, at an elevation of 3,582 meters (11,750 feet). species

Schefter,PW 2005 Re-evaluation of genera in the subfamily Hydropsychinae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Aquatic Insects 27(2) 133 - 154 DOI: 10.1080/01650420500062758 Abstract

Schefter, PW and Wiggins, GB 1986 A Systematic Study of the Nearctic Larvae of the Hydropsyche morosa Group (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). The Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto Canada.

Schuster,GA 1977 A previously unreported gland and associated structure found in the genus Hydropsyche. ASB Bulletin 24:83.

Shapas,TJ; Hilsenhoff,WL 1976 Feeding habits of Wisconsin's predominant lotic Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. Great Lakes Entomologist 9, 175-188.

Short,RA and Ward,JV 1980 Macroinvertebrates of a Colorado high mountain stream. The Southwestern Naturalist, 23-32. PDF

Smith,SD 1968a The Arctopsychinae of Idaho. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 44, 102-112.

Smith,SD 1968b The Rhyacophila of the Salmon river drainage of Idaho with special reference to larvae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 61 3, 655-674.

Smith,SD1976 A progress report on the phylogeny of Rhyacophila larvae. Pages 5-6 in Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Trichoptera (H. Malicky, ed.) Dr. W. Junk, The Hague.

Smith,SD 1984 Larvae of Nearctic Rhyacophila, part I: acropedes group. Aquatic Insects 6:37-40.

Smith SD and KL Manuel 1984 Reconsideration of the nearctic species of the Rhyacophila acropedes subgroup based on adults (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). In Proc. Fourth Int. Symp. Trichoptera, JC Morse, ed Dr. W. Junk, The Hague.
     Renames Rhyacophila acropedes as Rhyacophila brunnea.

Stanford,JA; Ward,JV 1985 The effects of regulation on the limnology of the Gunnison River: A North American case history. In: Regulated Rivers. Eds: Lillehammer,A; Saltveit,S Universitetsforlaget As., Oslo, Norway, 467-480.

Stark,JD and Banks,JE 2003 Population-level effects of pesticides and other toxicants on arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 48:505-19.

Stephens, JF 1836. Illustrations of British entomology; or a Synopsis of Indigenous Insects: Containing their Generic and Specific Distinctions; with an Account of their Metamorphoses, Times of Appearance, Localities, Food, and Economy, as far as Practicable. (Mandibulata). 6. [Trichoptera, pages 146-208]. Baldwin and Cradock, London, 240 pages.
     First described the family Hydroptilidae and Rhyacophilidae.

Swegman, BG 1978. The occurrence of an intersex individual of Psychomyia flavida (Trichoptera). Entomological News 89:187-188.

Swegniau,BG and Ferrington,LC 1980 New records of western Trichoptera with notes on their biology. Great Basin Naturalist 40(3) 287-291. PDF


Thomas,JA; Frandsen,PB; Prendini,E; Zhou,X and Holzenthal,RW 2020 A multigene phylogeny and timeline for Trichoptera (Insecta). Systematic Entomology, 45(3), pp.670-686. PDF
     Abstract: "The Trichoptera, or caddisflies, are traditionally split into two taxonomic subdivisions: the 'retreat-making' Annulipalpia and the 'case-making' Integripalpia (sensu Ross). The monophyly of these groups is well documented; however, the establishment of a third subdivision, 'Spicipalpia', and the positions of the five 'spicipalpian' families is much debated. In contrast to previous molecular studies using nuclear ribosomal RNA, a recent trichopteran study (using nuclear protein-coding genes) placed one of these 'spicipalpian' families, the free-living predatory Rhyacophilidae, as the sister taxon to the rest of Trichoptera, a result that has significant implications for both the understanding of trichopteran evolution and its timing. This paper sets out to investigate the relationships of Trichoptera using several newly sequenced genes, together with previously published gene sequences. This dataset is the largest trichopteran dataset to date, covering six independent genes and > 10,000 nucleotides, and containing 185 species representing 49 families. With all data included, likelihood and Bayesian analyses support a monophyletic Annulipalpia and a monophyletic Integripalpia, which includes the 'spicipalpians' as a paraphyletic grade at the base of this clade. However, an analysis of the protein-coding data alone using similar analytical methods recovers Rhyacophilidae as the most basal taxon in Trichoptera, with low support. A reanalysis correcting for nucleotide composition bias provides support for the placement of the 'spicipalpian' taxa as sister to the Integripalpia, consistent with the total data analysis, suggesting that the basal position of Rhyacophilidae in the uncorrected analysis could be (or is probably) an artefact of base composition. We find it likely that ancestral trichopterans made incipient cases and retreats, and these had independent origins as precocious pupal chambers. Molecular dating analysis in beast, using the birth-death model of speciation, with a relaxed-clock model of sequence evolution informed by 37 fossil constraints, suggests that the most recent common ancestor of Trichoptera appeared in the Permian (c. 275 Ma) in line with the first appearance of Trichoptera in the fossil record, and that vicariance explains the distribution of most trichopteran taxa. A new infraordinal name, Phryganides, is introduced for the tube-case-making families of Integripalpia."

Thut,RN 1969 Feeding habits of larvae of seven Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) species with notes on other life-history features. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62(4), pp.894-898.

Tindall,AR 1963 The skeleton and musculature of the thorax and limbs of the larva of Limnephilus sp. (Trichoptera: Limnophilidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 115: 409-477.

Tindall,AR 1963 Some observations on the physiology of the larval abdominal muscles of Limnephilus (Trichoptera). Journal of Insect Physiology 9: 563-572.

Tindall,AR 1965 The functioning of the leg in the larva of Limnephilus (Trich., Limnephilidae). The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 101: 34-41.

Torres-Ruiz,M, Wehr,JD; Perrone,AA. 2007 Trophic relations in a stream food web: importance of fatty acids for macroinvertebrate consumers. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 509-522. Abstract


Ulmer,G 1903 Über die metamorphose der Trichopteren. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg 18: 1-154.

Usis,JD and Foote,BA 1991 Influence of strip-mining on the mortality of a wetland caddisfly, Limnephilus indivisus. Great-Lakes Entomologist 24:133-143. PDF


Vaughn, C.C. 1987 Substratum preference of the caddisfly Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen) (Trichoptera: Helicopsychidae) Hydrobiologia 154(1) 201-205 DOI: 10.1007/BF00026840 Abstract

Vieira,NKM; Poff,NL; Carlisle,DM; Moulton,SR,II; Koski,ML and Kondratieff,BC 2006, A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 187, http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ds187

Vineyard,RN and Wiggins,GB 1988 Further revision of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera): evidence for inclusion of Neophylacinae and Thremmatidae. Systematic Entomology 13:361-372.

Voelz,NJ; Poff,NL; Ward,JV 1994 Differential effects of a brief thermal disturbance on caddisflies (Trichoptera) in a regulated river. American Midland Naturalist 132 (1) 173-182. Abstract PDF

Voelz,NJ; Ward,JV 1996a Microdistributions, food resources and feeding habits of filter-feeding Trichoptera in the Upper Colorado River. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 137 (3) 325-348. PDF

Voelz,NJ; Ward,JV 1996b Microdistributions of filter-feeding caddisflies (Insecta:Trichoptera) in a regulated Rocky Mountain river. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 654-666. PDF

Vorhies,CT 1908 Studies on the Trichoptera of Wisconsin. PhD Thesis. 1909 Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences Arts and Letters 16: 647-738. PDF
Vohries, 1909 name Trichoptera World Checklist name Comment or Citation
Phryganea interrupta Say 1828 Phryganea sayi Milne 1931
Neuronia postica Walker, 1852 Ptilostomis postica (Walker, 1852) Kolenati, 1859 described the genus Ptilostomis
Limnephilus rhombicus Linnaeus 1758 Limnephilus rhimbicus Linnaeus 1758 No change
Limnephilus submonilifer Walker, 1852 Limnephilus submonilifer Walker, 1852 No change
Platyphylax designatus Walker, 1852 Hesperophylax designatus (Walker, 1852) Banks, 1916 described the genus Hesperophylax
Platyphylax subfasciatus Say, 1828 Pycnopsyche subfasciatus (Say, 1828) Banks, 1905 described the genus Pycnopsyche
Lepidostoma wisconsinensis Vorhies, 1909 Lepidostoma bryanti (Banks, 1908) Banks was one year ahead of Vorhies in publishing a description.
Leptocerus dilutus Hagen, 1861 Ceraclea diluta (Hagen, 1861) Vohries does not cite Stephen, 1829 who described the genus Cerclea.
Leptocerus ancylus Vorhies, 1909 Ceraclea ancylus (Vorhies, 1909) " "
Leptocerus tarsipunctatus Vorhies, 1909 Ceraclea tarsipunctata (Vorhies, 1909) " "
Leptocella uwarowii (Kolenati, 1859) Nectopsyche albida (Walker, 1852)
Setodes grandis Banks, 1907 Leptocerus americanus (Banks, 1899)
Triaenodes flavescens Banks, 1900 Triaenodes flavescens Banks, 1900 No change
Molanna uniophila Vorhies, 1909 Molanna uniophila Vorhies, 1909 No change
Hydropsyche alternans (Walker, 1852) Ceratopsyche alternans (Walker, 1852)
Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen, 1861) Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen, 1861) No change
Phylocentropus maximus Vorhies, 1909 Phylocentropus placidus (Banks, 1905) Banks was ahead of Vorhies a few years in naming this caddis.
Rhyacophila torva Hagen, 1861 Rhyacophila torva Hagen, 1861 No change

Vorhies,CT 1905 Habits and anatomy of the larva of the caddis-fly, Platyphylax designatus, Walker. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Arts and Sciences 15:108-123.

Vshivkova,T, Morse,JC, and Ruiter,D 2007 Phylogeny of Limnephilidae and composition of the genus Limnephilus (Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Limnephilini). Pages 309-319 in Bueno-Soria, Joaquín, Barba-Álvarez, Rafael, Armitage, Brian J. (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Columbus, Ohio, The Caddis Press.


Walker,F 1852 Catalogue of the Specimens of Neuropterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. London : British Museum Vol. 1 pp. 1-192

Wallace, JB 1975 The larval retreat and food of Arctopsyche; with phylogenetic notes on feeding adaptations in Hydropsychidae larvae (Trichoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 68(1) 167-173.

Ward,JV 1981 Altitudinal distribution and abundance of Trichoptera in a Rocky Mountain stream. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trichoptera (pp. 375-381). Springer Netherlands. Abstract

Ward,JV, Kondratieff,BC and Zuellig,RE 2002 An Illustrated Guide to the Mountain Stream Insects of Colorado. 2nd ed. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 219 pages.
     General reference for aquatic insects in the mountain running waters of Colorado. Used by classes everywhere in Colorado. Has wonderful illustrations of some of the common caddisfly larvae.

Warnick,SL and Bell,HL 1969 The acute toxicity of some heavy metals to different insects. Journal WPCF 41 2, 280-284.

Wetmore,SH; Mackay,RJ and Newbury,RW 1990 Characterization of the hydraulic habitat of Brachycentrus occidentalis, a filter-feeding caddisfly. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 9: 157-169.

Weaver III,JS 1983 The evolution and classification of Trichoptera, with a revision of the Lepidostomatidae and a North American synopsis of this family. Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 411 pages.

Weaver III,JS 1984 The evolution and classification of Trichoptera, part I: the groundplan of Trichoptera. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk Publishers. The Hague (pp. 413-419).

Weaver III,JS 1988 A synopsis of the North American Lepidostomatidae (Trichoptera). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 24, 1-141.

Weaver III,JS 1992 Remarks on the evolution of Trichoptera: a critique of Wiggins and Wichard's classification. Cladistics 8, 171-180.

Weaver III,JS 1992 Further remarks on the evolution of Trichoptera: a reply to Wiggins. Cladistics 8, 187-190.

Weaver III,JS 2002 A synonymy of the caddisfly genus Lepidostoma Rambur (Trichoptera: Lepidostomatidae), including a species checklist. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 145(2), 173-192. PDF

Weaver III,JS and Morse,JC 1986 Evolution of feeding and case-making behavior in Trichoptera. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 5(2) 150-158. PDF
     Abstract: "A phylogeny of the families of Trichoptera is reviewed to provide a basis for understanding the probable evolution of feeding tactics and case or retreat constructions by larvae. At least 48 hierarchically inclusive homologues are known, mostly from larval, pupal, and adult morphology. Their resulting phylogeny indicates that Rhyacophilidae, Hydrobiosidae, Glossosomatidae, and Hydroptilidae are more closely related to Philopotamidae, Hydropsychidae, and their allies than to Limnephilidae, Leptoceridae, and their allies. This phylogeny implies that the ancestral caddisfly larva was probably a tube-dwelling detritivore, inhabiting humus and detrital mats near the shores of lentic or lotic-depositional habitats. This ancestor evolved into a tube-case-making detritivore and scraper in the ancestor of Integripalpia and into a retreat-making collector-gatherer in the ancestor of Annulipalpia. All other larval feeding and case-making tactics evolved from these ancestral habits."

Webb,DW (Ed.) 1996 Current and Selected Bibliographies on Benthic Biology. North American Benthological Society, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. 96 pages.

Wellnitz,T and Poff,NL 2012 Current-mediated periphytic structure modifies grazer interactions and algal removal. Aquatic Ecology, 46(4) 521-530. PDF

Wellnitz,TA; Poff,NL; Cosyleón,G and Steury,B 2001 Current velocity and spatial scale as determinants of the distribution and abundance of two rheophilic herbivorous insects. Landscape Ecology, 16(2), 111-120. PDF

Wichard,W 2021 Overview of the caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera) in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Cretaceous Research, 119, p.104707.
     Abstract: "The study of caddisflies in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber is still in its infancy, it being too early to get more than a preliminary overview of the Trichoptera fauna. With description here of two new and significant taxa, Cretacoptila botosaneanui gen. et sp. nov. and Electrocentropus dilucidus gen. et sp. nov. a total of 34 named species are listed, distributed among 10 families. Several taxonomic changes are made: two established species are transferred to more-appropriate genera, becoming Neucentropus macularis (Wang et al., 2019) comb. nov. and Myanpsyche malaisei (Wichard & Wang, 2019) comb. nov.; a new extinct subfamily † Burminoptilinae subfamily nov. is proposed in the family Hydroptilidae and two extinct families, † Burmapsychidae fam. nov. and † Cretapsychidae fam. nov., are proposed for the superfamily Sericostomatoidea.
The small size of adults of many of these species is remarkable. With their 2–4 mm length forewings they are smaller than their next relatives in the Baltic Amber and even much smaller than their present representatives. Thus, not only are the hydroptilids “microcaddisflies”, but also philopotamids of the genus Wormaldia and psychomyiids of the extinct genus Palerasnitsynus, which, being the most common caddisflies in Burmese amber, apparently tended to swarm."

Wichard,W; Caspers,N 1991 Caddisflies of Baltic amber - 2. Fossil species of the genus Rhyacophila. Pages 447-451 in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Trichoptera (C. Tomaszewski, ed.) Adam Mickiewicz University Press, Poznan, Poland.

Wichard,W; Schmidt,HH; Wagner,R 1993 The semipermeability of the pupal cocoon of Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: Spicipalpia). Pages 25-27 in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Trichoptera (C. Otto, ed.) Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Wiggins,GB 1960 A preliminary systematic study of the North American larvae of the caddisfly family Phryganeidae (Trichoptera). Canadian Journal of Zoology 38 (6) 1153-1170.

Wiggins,GB 1963 Larvae and pupae of two North American limnephilid caddisfly genera (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 58(4)103-112.

Wiggins,GB 1973 Contributions to the systematics of the caddisfly family Limnephilidae (Trichoptera). I Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Contributions 94:1-32.

Wiggins,GB 1973 A contribution to the biology of caddisflies in temperary pools. Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Contributions 88.

Wiggins,GB 1975 Contributions to the systematics of the caddifly family Limnephilidae (Trichoptera). II Canadian Entomologist 107(3):325-336.

Wiggins,GB 1996 Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). 2nd Edition. University of Toronto Press, 457 pages.
     Be careful to get the 1996 (2nd) edition, unless you want the older 1977 book for historic reasons. The 1996 edition has lots of new information. This is the bible for Caddisfly identification in North America. This book has excellent illustrations and keys. Each genus has a short discussion of Distribution and Species, Morphology, Case, Biology and Remarks. The illustrations and bibliography are worth the cost of the book alone. As of the publication of this book, Wiggins says we have 149 genera of caddisflies in North America and he has keys to the larvae of all of them except for 4 where the larvae have not been associated.

Wiggins,GB 1996 Trichoptera Families. In: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 3rd ed. Eds: Merritt,RW; Cummins,KW Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 309-349.
     Another bible for those interested in the Aquatic insects of North America. This is the book we use to identify caddis.

Wiggins,GB 1973 A Contribution to the Biology of Caddisflies (Trichoptera) in Temporary Pools. Life Sciences Contributions of the Royal Ontario Museum. 88: 1-28.

Wiggins,GB 1998 The Caddisfly family Phryganeidae (Trichoptera). University of Toronto Press. 306 pages.

Wiggins,GB 2005 Caddisflies: the underwater architects. University of Toronto Press. 517 pages.

Wiggins,GB; Currie,DC 2008 Chapter 17: Trichoptera Families. In: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 4th ed. Eds: Merritt,RW; Cummins,KW; Berg,MB Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 439-480.
     This is the best identification key for the caddis larvae of North America.

Wiggins,GB and Erman,NA 1987. Additions to the systematics and biology of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera). Canadian Entomologist 119:867-872.

Wiggins,GB; Mackay,RJ and Smith,IM 1980 Evolutionary and ecological strategies of animals in annual temporary pools. Archiv für Hydrobiologie supplement, 58(97), 206.

Wiggins,GB, and Richardson,JS 1982 Revision and synopsis of the caddisfly genus Dicosmoecus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Dicosmoecinae). Aquatic Insects 4:181-217.

Wiggins,GB, and Richardson,JS 1987 Revision of the Onocosmoecus unicolor group (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae: Dicosmoecinae) . Psyche 93(3-4): 187-216. PDF

Wiggins,GB, and Richardson,JS 1989 Biosystematics of Eocosmoecus, a new Nearctic caddisfly genus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae, Dicosmoecinae) Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 8(4) 355-369. Abstract and first page
     Quote from abstract: "Keys distinguishing Eocosmoecus, Onocosmoecus, and Dicosmoecus are given for adults, pupae, and larvae. "

Wiggins,GB; Weaver,JS and Unzicker,JD 1985 Revison of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera). Canadian Entomologist 117, 763-800.

Wiggins,GB and Wichard,W 1989 Phylogeny of pupation in Trichoptera, with proposals on the origin and higher classification of the order. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 8: 260-276.

Wiggins,GB and Wisseman,RW 1992. New North American species in the genera Neothremma and Farula, with hypotheses on phylogeny and biogeography (Trichoptera: Uenoidae). Canadian Entomologist 124:1063-1074.

Williams,DD 1983 The natural history of a Nearctic temporary pond with remarks on continental variation in such habitats. Int. Rev. ges Hydrobiol. 68: 239-253.

Williams,DD; Read,AT and Moore,KA 1983. The biology and zoogeography of Helicopsyche borealis (Trichoptera: Helicopsychidae): a Nearctic representative of a tropical genus. Canadian Journal Zoology 61: 2288-2299.

Williams,DD, Tavares,AF and Bryant,E 1987 Respiratory device or camouflage? A case for the caddisfly. Oikos 50(1): 42-52. PDF
     Abstract:"Two hypotheses exist as to the function of the tubular cases constructed from silk and debris by caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae. One proposes that they provide protection for the larvae by camouflaging them against their background or by providing resistance to the jaws of predators. The other proposes that the case acts as an aid to respiration as, by undulating its abdomen, the larva can create a flow of water through the case and over its gills. We measured, in respirometer chambers at 13°C, the uptake of dissolved oxygen by larvae of 22 species of caddisfly representing a variety of habitat types and phylogenetic lines. Oxygen uptake by larvae in their cases was compared with that of larvae without cases and the species fell into three basic groups: in Group A, representing seven families, the cases appeared to confer a respiratory advantage upon the larvae through reduced levels of oxygen uptake and moderation of respiration rates (i.e., by optimizing rather than maximizing oxygen consumption); in Group B, representing two families, the cases appeared to be a disadvantage to respiration (larvae in their cases consumed more oxygen than they did in the absence of their cases); and in Group C, representing the largest family, the Limnephilidae, for most of the species tested the cases appeared to confer no respiratory advantage (no differences between the amounts of oxygen consumed by larvae in their cases and alone). Given the many uses to which silk has been put in the Trichoptera, it seems reasonable to suppose that construction of a tubular case does not dictate a single function across all case-building species. Our data point to a respiratory function in some species but to a non-respiratory function (probably protection from predators) in others, particularly in the Limnephilidae."

Williams,NE and Williams,DD 1979 Distribution and feeding records of the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Matamek River region, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 57(12), 2402-2412. Abstract

Winterbourn,MJ 1971 The life histories and trophic relationships of the Trichoptera of Marion Lake, British Columbia. Canandian Journal of Zoology 49(5)623-635.

Winterbourn,MJ and Crowe,ALM 2001 Flight activity of insects along a mountain stream: is directional flight adaptive? Freshwater Biology 46, 1479-1489.

Wissinger,SA; Bohonak,A; Whiteman,HH and Brown,WB 1999 Subalpine Wetlands in Colorado. In: Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America: Ecology and Management. (Eds: Batzer,D; Rader,R; Wissinger,S) John Wiley & Sons, 757-790. (3407 KB)

Wissinger,SA; Brown,WS and Jannot,JE 2003 Caddisfly life histories along permanence gradients in high altitude wetlands in Colorado (U.S.A.). Freshwater Biology 48(2). Abstract PDF (427 KB)

Wissinger,SA; Eldermire,C and Whissel,JC 2005 The role of larval cases in reducing aggression and cannibalism among caddisflies in temporary wetlands. Wetlands 24(4) 777-783. Abstract PDF

Wissinger,SA; Sparks,GB; Rouse,GL; Brown,WS; Steltzer,HM 1996 Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorus caddisflies in subalpine wetlands. Ecology 77(8) 2421-2430. Abstract PDF Read online

Wissinger,SA; Steinmetz,J; Alexander,JS; Brown,WS 2004 Larval cannibalism, time constraints, and adult fitness in caddisflies that inhabit temporary wetlands. Oecologia 138, 39-47. Abstract (198 KB)

Wissinger,SA; Perchik,ME and Klemmer,AJ 2018 Role of animal detritivores in the breakdown of emergent plant detritus in temporary ponds. Freshwater Science, 37(4), pp.826-835.
     Abstract: "Few in situ studies have investigated the biological drivers of detritus processing in shallow lentic systems, despite abundant evidence that vascular plant detritus is a primary source of nutrients and energy. In particular, the relative importance of microbial decomposers and animal detritivores to overall detritus breakdown is poorly documented. Caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) are often the biomass-dominant animal detritivores in high-elevation and high-latitude ponds and wetlands in the northern hemisphere. The larvae of many limnephilid caddisfly species are shredders that rely on detritus as their primary food source, and they may therefore play an important role in litter breakdown in lentic systems. Here, we manipulated abundances (present/absent) of caddisfly larvae in shallow montane ponds in Colorado, and compared sedge detritus breakdown rates across treatments. We found that coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) was converted to fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) 2 to 3× faster when caddisflies were allowed access to the detritus than when not, indicating that caddisflies play a key role in litter breakdown in these temporary habitats. Dietary data from the 6 species of caddisflies in the ponds revealed that all primarily consume CPOM derived from vascular plants, although the ratios of CPOM and FPOM in the diets varied among species. The biomass of caddisflies relative to detrital inputs is particularly high at our study sites compared with other eutrophic, low-elevation wetlands. Thus, we suspect that animal detritivory relative to microbial processing may be especially high in these ponds. Future in situ, whole-community studies in basins that differ in hydroperiod, nutrient status, and ratio of detrital inputs to detritivore biomass will be needed to construct a general model of detritus breakdown in shallow lentic freshwater habitats."

Wissinger,SA; Whiteman,HH; Sparks,GB; Rouse,GL and Brown,WS 1999 Foraging trade-offs along a predator-permanence gradient in subalpine wetlands. Ecology 80(6) 2102-2116. PDF

Wissinger,SA; Whissel,J; Eldermire,C and Brown,W 2006 Predator defense along a permanence gradient: roles of case structure, behavior, and developmental phenology in caddisflies, Oecologia, Pages 1 - 12. Abstract PDF (311 KB)

Wisseman,RW 1987 Biology and distribution of the Dicosmoecinae (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) in western North America. MS thesis Oregon State University PDF
     Abstract: "Literature and museum records have been reviewed to provide a summary on the distribution, habitat associations and biology of six western North American Dicosmoecinae genera and the single eastern North American genus, Ironoquia. Results of this survey are presented and discussed for Allocosmoecus, Amphicosmoecus and Ecclisomyia.
Field studies were conducted in western Oregon on the life-histories of four species, Dicosmoecus atripes, D. gilvipes, Onocosmoecus unicolor and Ecclisocosmoecus scylla.
Although there are similarities between genera in the general habitat requirements, the differences or variability is such that we cannot generalize to a "typical" dicosmoecine life-history strategy. A common thread for the subfamily is the association with cool, montane streams. However, within this stream category habitat associations range from semi-aquatic, through first-order specialists, to river inhabitants. In feeding habits most species are omnivorous, but they range from being primarily detritivorous to algal grazers. The seasonal occurrence of the various life stages and voltinism patterns are also variable.
Larvae show inter- and intraspecific segregation in the utilization of food resources and microhabitats in streams. Larval life-history patterns appear to be closely linked to seasonal regimes in stream discharge. A functional role for the various types of case architecture seen between and within species is examined. Manipulation of case architecture appears to enable efficient utilization of a changing seasonal pattern of microhabitats and food resources."

Wold,JL 1973 Systematics of the genus Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) in western North America with special reference to the immature stages (Doctoral dissertation). PDF

Wood,JR and Resh,VH 1984 Demonstration of sex pheromones in caddisflies (Trichoptera). Journal of Chemical Ecology 10: 171-175.

Wymer,D and Morse,JC 2000 Larvae, pupae and adults of Glossosoma nigrior (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae), with a review of the eastern North American species of Glossosoma. Entomological News 111 3, 149-158.




Zhou,X; Frandsen,PB; Holzenthal,RW; Beet,CR; Bennett,KR; Blahnik,RJ; Bonada,N; Cartwright,D; Chuluunbat,S; Cocks,GV and Collins,GE 2016 The Trichoptera barcode initiative: a strategy for generating a species-level Tree of Life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371(1702), p.20160025. PDF HTML
     Abstract: "DNA barcoding was intended as a means to provide species-level identifications through associating DNA sequences from unknown specimens to those from curated reference specimens. Although barcodes were not designed for phylogenetics, they can be beneficial to the completion of the Tree of Life. The barcode database for Trichoptera is relatively comprehensive, with data from every family, approximately two-thirds of the genera, and one-third of the described species. Most Trichoptera, as with most of life's species, have never been subjected to any formal phylogenetic analysis. Here, we present a phylogeny with over 16,000 unique haplotypes as a working hypothesis that can be updated as our estimates improve. We suggest a strategy of implementing constrained tree searches, which allow larger datasets to dictate the backbone phylogeny, while the barcode data fill out the tips of the tree. We also discuss how this phylogeny could be used to focus taxonomic attention on ambiguous species boundaries and hidden biodiversity. We suggest that systematists continue to differentiate between 'Barcode Index Numbers' (BINs) and 'species' that have been formally described. Each has utility, but they are not synonyms. We highlight examples of integrative taxonomy, using both barcodes and morphology for species description.
This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. "

Zuellig,RE; Heinold,BD; Kondratieff,BC and Ruiter,DE 2012 Diversity and Distribution of Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), Stoneflies (Plecoptera), and Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming, 1873-2010.U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 606, 257 p. PDF - caution 46MB

Zuellig,RE; Kashian,DR; Brooks,ML; Kiffney,PM and Clements,WH 2008 The influence of metal exposure history and ultraviolet-B radiation on benthic communities in Colorado Rocky Mountain streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27(1), 120-134. PDF

Zuellig,RE; Kondratieff,BC and Rhodes,HA 2002 Benthos recovery after an episodic sediment release into a Colorado Rocky Mountain river. Western North American Naturalist 62 (1) 59-72.

Good Links

On this website:
Trichoptera Species List

Other Websites:
Integrated Taxonomic Information System http://www.itis.gov/
     Use this website for checking names to see if they have changed. Especially useful when reading older papers. Works for all taxa, insects, mammals, plants etc.

Trichoptera World Checklist http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/

Brown,WS 2004 Books, Papers, References and Publications informing us about the Caddisflies of Gunnison County, Colorado

"There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as if everything is." -- Albert Einstein