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Trichoptera: Uenoidae of Gunnison County, Colorado

Neothremma alicia

Dodds and Hishaw 1925
Updated 16 Feb 2019
TSN 116389

Neothrema alicia on moss in subalpine stream

The three animals on the right were clinging to the moss in a small subalpine stream on 18 July 2007.

Good Links

On this website:
Ueonidae Introduction

Other Websites:
Photos, Map, Museum specimens, DNA - Barcodinglife.org

Illustration - University of Alberta Entomology Collection Species page
     Has illustration of male genitalia, description, habitat information, range and more.

Locations Collected

Found in large numbers in small mossy streams in the headwaters of the East River. Allan (1975) reports this species from Cement Creek.


Allan,JD 1975 The distributional ecology and diversity of benthic insects in Cement Creek, Colorado. Ecology 56:1040-1053. PDF

Banks,N 1930 New neuropteroid insects from the United States. Psyche 37: 223-233.
     Nathan Banks describes the new genus Neothremma as part of the caddisfly family Sericostomatidae and designates Neothremma alicia as the type species. He includes an illustration of the male head and genitalia.

Djernæs,M and Sperling,FAH 2012 Exploring a key synapomorphy: correlations between structure and function in the sternum V glands of Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Insecta). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106: 561-579.

Dodds,GS and Hisaw,FL. 1925 Ecological studies on aquatic insects. III. Adaptations of caddisfly larvae to swift streams. Ecology 6(2)123-137. Abstract and first page

Flint,OS, Jr. 1960 Taxonomy and biology of Nearctic limnephilid larvae (Trichoptera), with special reference to species in eastern United States. Entomologica Americana 40:1-117.
     Describes the larvae.

Gaufin,AR; Clubb,R and Newell,R 1974 Studies on the tolerance of aquatic insects to low oxygen concentrations. Great Basin Naturalist 34:45-59. PDF
      The authors studied the acute short term tolerance of aquatic insects to low oxygen. They used the 96 hour Median Tolerance Limit. The TLm96 for N. alicia was 1.7 mg/l and 14% oxygen saturation. This was the least tolerance for low oxygen of the 7 species of caddisflies they studied.

Gaufin,AR and Hern,S 1971 Laboratory studies on tolerance of aquatic insects to heated waters. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 44:240-245. PDF
     Abstract: "The mature larvae of fifteen species of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) and the scud (Amphipoda) were tested to determine their relative sensitivity to heated waters under laboratory conditions. The temperature at which 50% died after 96 hours (TLm96) was recorded as the lethal temperature. This ranged from 11.7 C for the torrential stream mayfly, Cinygmula par Baton, to 32.6 C for the snipefly, Atherix variegata Walker. "       They found the TLm96 for N. alicia was 25.9°C.

Herbst,DB and Silldorff,EL 2009 Development of a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biological integrity (IBI) for stream assessments in the Eastern Sierra Nevada of California. Reporte Final. California Environmental Protection Agency. Los Angeles, EUA. PDF
     The authors assign a tolerance value of 0 to the genera Neothremma. The scale is from 0-10, with zero being intolerant and 10 being the most tolerant of the genera they studied in detail.

Herrmann,SJ; Ruiter,DE and Unzicker,JD 1986 Distribution and records of Colorado Trichoptera. Southwestern Naturalist 31 4, 421-457.
     Notes that Neothremma alicia lives in Gunnison County. Quote from page 452: "Habitat: streams, seeps; Altitudinal range: 2536-3170m; Adult collection dates; 24 July to 25 August; The two western nearctic genera Neothremma and Farula were removed from the family Limnephilidae and assigned to the family Ueonidae (Wiggins et al, In press) "

Mecom, John O. 1972 Productivity and distribution of Trichoptera larvae in a Colorado mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 40(2): 151 - 176. ISSN: 0018-8158 (Paper) 1573-5117 (Online) DOI: 10.1007/BF00016789 Abstract
     Has life history data from the St Vrain River in Colorado.

Nimmo, A 1971 The adult Rhyacophilidae and Limnephilidae (Trichoptera) of Alberta and eastern British Columbia and their post glacial origin. Quaestiones Entomologicae 73: 3-234.

Ogilvie,GA and Clifford,HF 1986 Life histories, production, and microdistribution of two caddisflies (Trichoptera) in a Rocky Mountain Stream. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64(12)2706-2716.
     Abstract: "This paper reports results of a 2-year study of the caddisflies Oligophlebodes zelti (Limnephilidae) and Neothremma alicia (Uenoidae) in a first-order Rocky Mountain stream of southern Alberta. The Oligophlebodes population had a univoltine cycle: eggs were oviposited in July and August and hatched in about 20 days, and the larvae grew rapidly during the remainder of the ice-free season. Larvae overwintered in the fourth larval instar and molted to the fifth instar the following spring. Pupation occurred in June, and adults started emerging in mid-July. Annual production for the O. zelti population was 116 mg·m-2·year-1. The Neothremma population had a 2-year cycle. Eggs apparently hatched after freeze-up. Larvae overwintered in the second instar. Most of the population achieved the third instar by the following July and the fourth instar by August, and spent the second winter in either the fourth or fifth instar. There was about a 3-week prepupal stage the following July and then emergence in July and August. Annual production for the N. alicia population was 103 mg·m-2·year-1. Oligophlebodes zelti and N. alicia larvae fed mainly on fine particulate organic matter and diatoms. Both O. zelti and N. alicia larvae were found on rocks only in fast water areas, but the two populations did not inhabit the same riffles. The riffles inhabited by O. zelti were wider with lower slopes and water velocities than riffles dominated by N. alicia larvae. Correlation analysis, using several parameters, indicated that total periphyton of the rocks might be a major factor accounting for O. zelti's distribution. The microdistribution of the N. alicia population was not correlated with any food source."

Rader,R and Belish, TA 1999 Influence of mild to severe flow alterations on invertebrates in three mountain streams. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 15(4)353 - 363.
     They comment that Neothremma alicia " declined or were even locally extirpated" by severe flow alterations due to dams and water abstraction of their habitat.

Ross, H. H. 1949. The caddisfly genus Neothremma Banks (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 39:92-93.

Ward,JV, Kondratieff,BC and Zuellig,RE 2002 An Illustrated Guide to the Mountain Stream Insects of Colorado. 2nd ed. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 219 pages.
     They note only one species of Neothremma (Neothremma alicia) has been found in Colorado.

Wiggins,GB; Weaver,JS; Unzicker,JD 1985 Revison of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera). Canadian Entomologist 117, 763-800.
     Moved Neothremma from the caddis family Limnephilidae to the family Ueonidae.

Wiggins,GB, and Wisseman,RW. 1992. New North American species in the genera Neothremma and Farula, with hypotheses on phylogeny and biogeography (Trichoptera: Uenoidae). Canadian Entomologist 124:1063-1074.

Brown,WS 2005 Trichoptera of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA