Trichoptera: Limnephilidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Nemotaulius hostilis(Hagen, 1873)
Updated 27 July 2017
This is the only species of Nemotaulis in North America. N. hostilis is found thoughout Canada and south to Colorado and Virginia in the US. The other 5 species live in Europe and Asia.
Good LinksOn this website:
Photo of adult from Cedar Creek Natural History Area in Minnesota http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/insects/album/026010016ap.html
Illustration - University of Alberta Entomology Collection Species page
Has information on identification, habitat, range and more.
Photos, Map, Museum specimens, DNA - Barcodinglife.org
ReferencesBernhardt,SA 1965 Observations on case building by Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagan) larvae (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 59/60:63-76.
Berté,SB; Pritchard,G 1982 The phenomenon of egg mass liquefaction in Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen) (Trichoptera: Limniphilidae). Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 1:49-51.
Abstract: "Scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to compare the structure of the gelatinous egg masses of five species of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) and an aquatic snail (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). The structure of the matrix was different in each species and varied in complexity from amorphous to uniformly channeled to channeled with a cortex of larger channels than those found in the medullar area. In the limnephilid caddisfly Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen) hydration-dehydration altered channel size and density of the matrix in a reversible manner, which is explained in terms of the molecular structure and hydration dynamics of gels. A direct relationship between the presence of a coarsely channeled cortex and desiccation resistance was observed. This study indicated that egg mass structure may provide information of taxonomic, phylogenetic, and ecological significance in the Trichoptera."
Berté,SB; Pritchard,G 1986 The life histories of Limnephilus externus (Hagen), Anabolia bimaculata (walker), and Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen) (Trichoptera:Limnephilidae) in a pond in southern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64, 2348-2356.
Abstract: "Limnephilus externus and Anabolia bimaculata are caddisflies that typically inhabit temporary pools, while Nemotaulius hostilis is a species that inhabits permanent pools. In a permanent pond with a fluctuating water level, both groups could be accommodated. The temporary-pool species laid egg masses on the ground above the water level in late summer. Larvae hatched in the autumn but remained in the masses until submersed by the rising water in the spring. Larvae grew at rates faster than those for any permanent-water trichopteran studied to date. Limnephilus externus adults emerged through August and underwent a 1-month reproductive delay. Anabolia bimaculata adults emerged through July, but showed no signs of a reproductive delay. By contrast, N. hostilis oviposited on riparian vegetation and larvae entered the water on hatching in August. Larval growth rates approximated those of other detritivorous shredders found in permanent waters. Over 75% of adult emergence occurred in 1 week at the end of May and adults underwent a reproductive diapause of slightly over a month's duration. The metabolic cost of high water temperatures on cool-adapted limnephilid caddisflies is postulated as the driving force behind the evolution of reproductive diapause in this family."
Dodds,GS and Hisaw,FL 1925 Ecological studies on aquatic insects. III. Adaptations of caddisfly larvae to swift streams. Ecology 6(2)123-137. Abstract and first page
Flint,OS, Jr. 1960 Taxonomy and biology of Nearctic limnephilid larvae (Trichoptera), with special reference to species in eastern United States. Entomologica American 40:1-117.
Describes the larvae of N. hostilis.
Hagen,HA 1873 Beiträge zur kenntniss der Phryganiden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 23:377-452.
Described as Glyphotaelius hostilis.
Herrmann,SJ; Ruiter,DE and Unzicker,JD 1986 Distribution and records of Colorado Trichoptera. Southwestern Naturalist 31 4, 421-457.
The authors show this species present in Gunnison County.
Inkley,MD; Wissinger,SA and Baros,BL 2008 Effects of drying regime on microbial colonization and shredder preference in seasonal woodland wetlands. Freshwater Biology, 53(3), pp.435-445. PDF
Llyod,JT 1921 The biology of the North American caddisfly larvae. Bulletin of the Llyod Library 21.
Discussed as Glyphotaelius hostilis.
Nimmo, A 1971 The adult Rhyacophilidae and Limnephilidae (Trichoptera) of Alberta and eastern British Columbia and their post glacial origin. Quaestiones Entomologicae 73: 3-234.
Pritchard,G and Berté,SB.1987 Growth and food choice by two species of limnephilid caddis larvae given natural and artiflcial foods. Freshwater Biology, 18(3), pp.529-535.
Summary: " 1. Larvae of the caddisfly Limnephilus externus grew faster than those of Nemotaulius hostilis in a permanent pond in southern Alberta.
2. We investigated whether this was due to more efficient food processing by L. externus, whether their growth coincided with high environmental temperatures, or whether they had the ability to choose and exploit higher quality food.
3. Of five foods used, protein content was highest in wheat flakes, similar in alder, bur-reed and willow leaves, and lowest in the moss Leptodictyum.
4. Both species grew faster and survived better on the wheat flakes, but there was no statistically significant difference between species on the same food when reared at 4 or 8°C in the laboratory.
5. At 16°C L. externus grew better than N. hostilis when fed wheat, but N. hostilis survived better on alder. Both species had higher survival and growth rates per day-degree at 8 and 4 than at 16°C.
6. Thus, faster growth rates of L. externus in the field appear to be due simply to higher temperatures during the larval growth period. Indeed, N. hostilis had a significantly higher growth rate per day-degree in a field experiment.
7. In food preference experiments, L. externus chose wheat first, moss second, alder third, and willow last; N. hostilis chose alder first, bur-reed second, moss third, and wheat last.
8. Protein content, leaf texture, microbial conditioning, and an interaction between larval behaviours selecting for food quality and case materials, are potential factors that influence 'food preference' results."
Roble,SM and Flint, Jr.,OS 2001 Nemotaulius hostilis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), a boreal caddisfly new to the Virginia fauna. Banisteria 18:35-37.
Sakhuja,M; Williams,DD and Williams,NE 1983 The role of setae in the behaviour of larval Phryganea cinerea Walker (Trichoptera: Phryganeidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61(4), pp.725-731.
Abstract: " Phryganea cinerea Walker is a member of one of the most primitive families of the tube-case-building caddisflies. The larva is well supplied with setae. The poor eyesight of caddisfly larvae is one indication that setae could play a significant role in their behaviour. This study records the responses of P. cinerea larvae to mechanical stimulation of individual setae located on the dorsal surface of the body. The most sensitive setae are located on the most anterior or most posterior segments of the body. While stimulation of setae on the labium, head, thorax, or legs generally produced responses towards the stimulus, stimulation of setae on the last three abdominal segments, including the anal prolegs, generally produced responses away from the stimulus. These responses are related to observations of larval interactions and feeding behaviour. Variations in intensity and quality of response indicate a difference in function of setae in different regions. Preliminary comparative observations on Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen), another case-building species, showed responses similar to those of P. cinerea upon stimulation, although responses were generally milder. Observations on Rhyacophila fuscula (Walker), a free-living species, showed intense responses to stimulation at the anterior end but very weak responses to stimulation of posterior setae."
Williams,DD, Tavares,AF and Bryant,E 1987 Respiratory device or camouflage? A case for the caddisfly. Oikos 50(1): 42-52. Abstract and first page
Quote from page 46: "In Nemoutaulis hostilis (Hagen), a limnephilid caddisfly characteristic of small weedy ponds and marshes often low in dissolved oxygen (Flint 1960, Wiggins 1977), there was no statistical difference (P<0.2) between the overall mean respiration rate of the larvae in or out of their cases (Fig. 7).
Brown,WS 2005 Trichoptera (Caddisflies) of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA