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Trichoptera: Limnephilidae of Gunnison County, Colorado

Limnephilus indivisus

(Walker, 1852)
Updated 18 Aug 2023
TSN 116081

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Jannot,JE 2009 Life history plasticity and fitness in a caddisfly in response to proximate cues of pond-drying. Oecologia, 161(2), pp.267-277.
     Abstract: "Pond-drying is a model for understanding the causes of life history variation in metamorphic organisms. However, we know relatively little about how interactions among specific proximate cues of pond-drying affect juvenile life history, how those responses might be mitigated by diet, and the post-metamorphic consequences for adult fitness. I manipulated larval diet, water depth, and water temperature during the aquatic larval stage of a temporary pond-dwelling caddisfly, Limnephilus indivisus. I predicted that shallow depths and warm temperatures (depth x temperature) associated with pond-drying would have negative effects on larval survival, growth, development, adult size, female fecundity, and adult longevity, but that supplementation of the larval diet should mitigate the trade-off between juvenile growth and pre-reproductive mortality risk by ameliorating the negative effects of pond-drying (diet x depth, diet x temperature) on these traits. Larval survival was enhanced by diet supplementation but was not affected by depth or temperature. Larval diet and water temperatures acted independently on growth, development, and female size, and growth rates were higher when larval diets were supplemented relative to ambient diets; development times were shorter when temperatures were warmer relative to colder; adult females were larger when larvae were fed a supplemented diet but smaller when reared in warm water. Larval growth and development were not affected by depth, but female size was reduced under shallow relative to deep conditions. Female longevity and fecundity were affected by the larval diet x female size interaction. Surprisingly, this was independent of the depth x temperature interaction on female longevity and fecundity suggesting that reductions in adult fitness due to juvenile abiotic conditions can be independent of size-at-maturity. Future studies should quantify the effect of proximate cues of pond-drying on juvenile survival and life history as well as adult fitness correlates."

Lloyd,JT 1915 Notes on the immature stages of some New York Trichoptera. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 23(4)201-212.

Merrill,D 1969 The distribution of case recognition in ten families of caddis larvae (Trichoptera). Animal Behavior 17(3)486-493. PDF

Mickel,CE and Milliron,HE 1939 Rearing the caddice fly, Limnephilus indivisus Walker and its Hymenopterous parasite Hemiteles biannulatus Grav. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 32(3)575-580.

Richardson,JS and Mackay,RJ 1984 A comparison of the life history and growth of Limnephilus indivisus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) in three temporary pools Archiv für Hydrobiologie 99(4)515-528.

Simpson,CB 1903 The log cabin builder (Limnephilus indivisus Walker). Entomological Society of Washington

Smyers,SD; Trowbridge,BA and Butler,BO 2011 Leaf diet affects growth of a shredder, Limnephilus indivisus, from a seasonal New England Pond. Northeastern Naturalist, 18(1), pp.27-36. PDF
     Abstract: "Deciduous leaf litter is often a primary source of energy at the base of the food web in seasonal woodland ponds (e.g., vernal or autumnal pools), which are common in the northeastern United States. It is therefore important to understand how leaf diet affects growth of detritivores, such as the caddisfly Limnephilus indivisus Walker, that feed almost exclusively on submerged plant matter in seasonal pond systems. Growth may relate to how rapidly a caddisfly is able to complete its larval development and pupate, and hence its ability to survive in small ponds with short hydroperiods. Growth is also related to the maximum size the larva achieves. In many organisms, attaining a larger size conveys several distinct advantages: larger individuals typically have higher survival rates and increased fecundity, and hence greater fitness compared to smaller conspecifics or competing sympatric species. To assess how leaf diet influences the growth of larvae of L. indivisus, we conducted a controlled experiment to test how different leaf diets influenced larval growth. The leaf diet experiment was set up as follows: Treatment 1: Acer rubrum (Red Maple), Treatment 2: Quercus spp. (oak), and Treatment 3: Red Maple and oak. L. indivisus that were fed oak leaves or a mix of oak and Red Maple leaves grew significantly larger than larvae fed Red Maple leaves only. In Treatment 3, the caddisfly was observed more frequently on the oak leaf compared to the Red Maple leaf. Although L. indivisus selected oak leaves more often during the experiment, oak leaves were less abundant than maple leaves at our study site. We hypothesize that the oak leaves provide more nutrients to L. indivisus due to a combination of physical, biological, and chemical properties which results in more larval growth."

Szenasy,E 1996 Toxicokinetics and fate of alpha-terthienyl, a botanical larvicide (Aedes atropalpus, Daphnia magna, Limnephilus indivisus). M.S Thesis, University of Ottawa, Canada
     Abstract: "The fate of the phototoxic phytochemical, α-terthienyl (α-T), which has been proposed as a novel mosquito larvicide was studied in target and non-target organisms. The lethality of this compound was determined in the laboratory by uniform acute toxicity bioassays using the target mosquito larvae, Aedes atropalpus, and two non-target species. Daphnia magna represented a potentially sensitive non-target organism and Limnephilus indivisus (caddisfly) larvae represented a potentially insensitive non-target species. The mosquito larvae had a lethal concentration for 50% mortality (LC\sb50) value determined to be 31.97 ppb. However, D. magna showed an order of magnitude more sensitivity towards α-T with an LC\sb50 of 1.74 ppb while L. indivisus larvae showed considerably less sensitivity at 64.76 ppb."

Usis,JD and Foote,BA 1991 Influence of strip-mining on the mortality of a wetland caddisfly, Limnephilus indivisus. Great-Lakes Entomologist 24:133-143. PDF
     Abstract: "A coal mine about 2.2 km upstream from Stillfork Swamp Nature Preserve, Carroll Co., Ohio was suspected of causing a reduction in Limnephilus indivisus caddisflies in the south half of the preserve. Second instar L. indivisus larvae collected from the south half of the preserve and from two control areas were reared in cages at the site of collection and at the other two sites in a replicated experiment. Elevated total dissolved solids in water samples from within rearing enclosures displayed strong correlation (r2 = 0.864) with increased mortality when compared to larvae reared in unaffected areas. This investigation suggests that larvae of L. indivisus are useful in biomonitoring of wetlands impacted by acid-mine drainage, and potentially other perturbations."

Walker,F 1852 Catalogue of the Specimens of Neuropterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. London : British Museum Vol. 1 pp. 1-192

Williams,DD, Tavares,AF and Bryant,E 1987 Respiratory device or camouflage? A case for the caddisfly. Oikos 50(1): 42-52. PDF

Brown,WS 2010 Trichoptera (Caddisflies) of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA