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Trichoptera of Gunnison County, Colorado

Introduction to caddis family Limnephilidae
Northern Case Makers

Kolenati, 1848
Updated 12 May 2017
TSN 115933

Provisional Species List

Good Links

On this website:
Introduction to the Limnephilus species
Introduction to the Apataniidae
Introduction to the Hesperophylax species
Introduction to the Ueonidae
Introduction to Trichoptera

Other Websites:
Photos from Alex Wild
     Adult Limnephilidae head http://www.myrmecos.net/insects/Limnephilid1.html
     Whole caddis adult http://www.myrmecos.net/insects/Limnephilid2.html

The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals http://www.pherobase.com/database/compbyfam/family-comp-Limnephilidae.php


Cummins,KW; Wilzbach,MA; Gates,DM; Perry,JB; Taliaferro,WB 1989 Shredders and riparian vegetation. BioScience, 39(1), 24-30. PDF

Denis,C 1977 Larval and imaginal diapause in Limnephilidae. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Trichoptera, Junk, The Hague. 109-115.

Djernæs,M 2011 Structure and phylogenetic significance of the sternum V glands in Trichoptera Zootaxa 2884: 1-60.
     Abstract: "I investigated the sternum V gland in 38 families of Trichoptera, and found it to be present in 25 of these. I found that the gland is generally present in Annulipalpia, except Dipseudopsidae, and in Spicipalpia. It is widespread in Plenitentoria, while it is often absent in Brevitentoria, especially in males. The opening is slit-like and U or crescent-shaped. There is significant variation in the cuticular structures associated with the opening ranging from no apparent modification, over scaly patches to elaborate protuberances. Gland opening muscles are associated with the gland in all families except Psychomyiidae, and are divided into 2 distinct types: One originating on the front edge of sternum VI found in Philopotamidae, Rhyacophilidae, Glossosomatidae and Hydroptilidae; and 1 originating on the cuticle of sternum V found in all other trichopterans. The shape of the gland reservoir is variable, from round periform to reniform, elongate or compartmentalised. Muscle fibres are often associated with the reservoir, but are notably absent in Limnephilidae. I mapped characters based on gland structures on a phylogeny of Trichoptera, and discuss the results. The sternum V gland provides potentially important characters from the superorder to the species leve l. I discuss 2 cases where characters from the sternum V gland may solve existing phylogenetic and taxonomic puzzles: Delimitation of Dipseudopsidae versus Polycentropodidae and the relationships among the hydropsychid subfamilies. "

Dodds GS and Hisaw FL. 1925. Ecological studies on aquatic insects. IV. Altitudinal range and zonation of mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies in the Colorado Rockies. Ecology 6(4)380-390. Abstract PDF

Flint, O. S., Jr. 1960. Taxonomy and biology of Nearctic limnephilid larvae (Trichoptera), with special reference to species in eastern United States. Entomologica Americana 40:1-120.

Herrmann,Scott J; Ruiter,Dave E; Unzicker,John D (1986): Distribution and records of Colorado Trichoptera. Southwestern Naturalist 31(4), 421-457.

Johansson,A; Johansson,F 1992 Effects of two different caddisfly case structures on predation by a dragonfly larva. Aquatic Insects 14 2, 73-84.

Kolenati, F.A. 1848 Genera et species Trichopterorum. Pars prior. Acta Regiae Bohemoslovenicae Societatis Scientiarum, Prague, 6: 1-108.
     Working in eastern Europe during the 1800's, Friedrich Kolenati (Wikipedia) described the caddis family Limnephilidae and many other interesting things in this paper.

Liess,M; Schulz,R 1996 Chronic effects of short-term contamination with the pyethroid insecticide fenvalerate on the caddisfly Limnephilus lunatus. Hydrobiologia 324, 99-106.

McCullagh,BS; Wissinger,SA and Marcus,JM 2015 Identifying PCR primers to facilitate molecular phylogenetics in Caddisflies (Trichoptera). Zoological Systematics, 40(4) 459 PDF
     Abstract: "The molecular phylogenetics of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) is well studied, but that of Trichoptera (caddisflies), the sister clade of Lepidoptera, is less studied. The PCR primer libraries developed for lepidopteran phylogenetics might work in Trichoptera. DNA from 8 caddisfly species (Asynarchus nigriculus (Banks, 1908), Grammotaulius lorettae Denning, 1941, Hesperophylax occidentalis (Banks, 1908), Limnephilus externus Hagen, 1861, Limnephilus picturatus McLachlan, 1875, Limnephilus secludens Banks, 1914, Limnephilus sublunatus Provancher, 1877 and Agrypnia deflata (Milne, 1931)) was used to screen for amplification. 107 primer pairs for 45 nuclear and 3 mitochondrial genes were tested. Primers for 1 new gene (40S ribosomal protein S2 (RPS2)) and 8 genes previously used in Trichopteran phylogenetics were recovered (16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CAD), cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and RNA polymerase-II (POL-II)). New primer pairs extended the genomic region sampled for many genes. Evolution rates among loci varied by 2 orders of magnitude. Differences among evolution rates and modes of inheritance offer flexible tools for resolving phylogenetic questions and examining genome evolution in the Trichoptera. Screening libraries of PCR primers is a useful approach for identifying PCR primers in related taxa with limited molecular genetic resources."

Nimmo, A 1971 The adult Rhyacophilidae and Limnephilidae (Trichoptera) of Alberta and eastern British Columbia and their post glacial origin. Quaestiones Entomologicae 73: 3-234.

Nimmo,AP 1991 Seven new species of Limnephilus from Western North America with description of female of L. pallens (Banks) (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Limnephilini). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 93 2, 499-508.

Nimmo,AP 1995 New species of Hydropsychidae and Limnephilidae (Insecta, Trichoptera) from the far east of Russia, with description of a new genus of Limnephilidae (Limnephilini). Occasional Papers on Trichoptera Taxonomy 1, 1-15.

Peckarsky,Barbara L; Dodson,Stanley I; Conklin,Don J (1985): A key to the aquatic insects of streams in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountain Biological Lab, including chironomid larvae from streams and ponds. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver CO. 47 pages.

Ross,HH 1950 Synoptic notes on some nearctic Limnephilid caddisflies (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). American Midland Naturalist 43 2, 410-429.

Ross,HH 1952 An annotated key to the nearctic males of Limnephilus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). American Midland Naturalist 47 2, 435-455.

Ruiter,DE 1995 The adult Limnephilus Leach (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) of the new world. Vol. 11. Ohio Biological Survey, College of Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 200 pages.

Schmid, F. 1955 Contribution à l'étude des Limnophilidae (Trichoptera). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 28.
     This is the landmark study of worldwide adult Limnephilidae that established the family as we know it today. Slight modifications due to study of the western US fauna have been created by Wiggins in 1973.

Usis,JD; Foote,BA 1991 Influence of strip-mining on the mortality of a wetland caddisfly, Limnephilus indivisus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 24 3, 133-143.

Vshivkova,T, Morse,JC, and Ruiter,D 2007 Phylogeny of Limnephilidae and composition of the genus Limnephilus (Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Limnephilini). Pages 309-319 in Bueno-Soria, Joaquín, Barba-Álvarez, Rafael, Armitage, Brian J. (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Columbus, Ohio, The Caddis Press. PDF
     Abstract: "A world revision of the family Limnephilidae (Trichoptera: Integripalpia) was undertaken as a necessary step to determine the position, structure, and phylogeny of the genus Limnephilus and family-group taxa for which it is nominotypical. The family Limnephilidae sensu lato and included taxa were analyzed with modern phylogenetic techniques. For the phylogenetic analysis, morphological characters of adults and immature stages were used, including traditionally used characters and some that have been poorly investigated or never studied. As a result of the analysis, new hypotheses of relationships are proposed among Plenitentoria taxa. For the first time, monophyly is inferred for the following taxa: superfamily Limnephiloidea, family Limnephilidae, subfamily Limnephilinae, tribe Limnephilini, and Limnephilus sensu sticto. Some other family-group taxa are distinguished based on high bootstrap support, unreversed synapomorphies, and/or topography, including a new family -group for Trichoptera, "Branch," more inclusive than the family catagory and less inclusive than the superfamily category. "

Wiggins,GB 1973 Contributions to the systematics of the caddisfly family Limnephilidae (Trichoptera). I Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Contributions 94: 1-32.

Wiggins,GB 1975 Contributions to the systematics of the caddifly family Limnephilidae (Trichoptera). II Canadian Entomologist 107(3):325-336.

Wissinger,SA; Brown,WS and Jannot,JE 2003 Caddisfly life histories along permanence gradients in high altitude wetlands in Colorado (U.S.A.). Freshwater Biology 48(2). Abstract Pdf Icon (427 KB)
     " SUMMARY 1. Larvae of cased caddisflies (Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae) are among the most abundant and conspicuous invertebrates in northern wetlands. Although species replacements are often observed along permanence gradients, the underlying causal mechanisms are poorly understood. In this paper, we report on the distributional patterns of caddisflies in permanent and temporary high-altitude ponds, and how those patterns reflect differences in life history characteristics that affect desiccation tolerance (fundamental niches) versus constraints related to biotic interactions (realised niches).
2. Species (Hesperophylax occidentalis and Agrypnia deflata) that were encountered only in permanent ponds are restricted in distribution by life history (no ovarian diapause, aquatic oviposition, and/or inability to tolerate desiccation). Although the egg masses of H. occidentalis tolerate desiccation, the larvae leave the protective gelatinous matrix of the egg mass because adults oviposit in water.
3. Three species (Asynarchus nigriculus, Limnephilus externus and L. picturatus) have life history characteristics (rapid larval growth, ovarian diapause and terrestrial oviposition of desiccation-tolerant eggs) that should facilitate the use of both permanent and temporary habitats. However, A. nigriculus is rare or absent in most permanent ponds, and L. externus and L. picturatus are rare or absent in most temporary ponds. Experimental data from a previous study on the combined effects of salamander predation and interspecific interactions among caddisflies (e.g. intraguild predation) suggest that biotic interactions limit each species to a subset of potentially exploitable habitats.
4. Many wetland invertebrates exhibit species replacements along permanence gradients, but few studies have separated the relative importance of the effects of drying per se from the effects of biotic interactions. Our results emphasise the complementary roles of comparative data on life histories and experimental data on competition and predation for understanding invertebrate distributions along permanence gradients."

Wissinger,SA; Sparks,GB; Rouse,GL; Brown,WS; Steltzer,HM 1996 Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorus caddisflies in subalpine wetlands. Ecology 77 8, 2421-2430.

Wissinger, S.A., J. Whissel, C. Eldermire, and W. Brown. 2006 Predator defense along a permanence gradient: roles of case structure, behavior, and developmental phenology in caddisflies, Oecologia, Pages 1 - 12. Abstract Pdf Icon (311 KB)

Brown, Wendy S. 2005 Trichoptera (Caddisflies) of Gunnison County, Colorado