Trichoptera: Limnephilidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Anabolia bimaculata (Walker, 1852)
Updated 22 May 2022
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Berte,SB 1981 Life histories of four species of limnephilid caddisflies in a pond in southern Alberta. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/18255
Abstract: "The life histories of four species of limnephilid caddisflies in a permanent pond in southern Alberta were investigated. Nemotaulius hostilis overwinters in the larval stage and displayed other life history traits restricting it to life in permanent aquatic habitats. Limnephilus externus and Anabolia bimaculata overwinter out of water in desiccation-resistant egg masses as first instar larvae and so can also survive in temporary pool habitats. Glyphopsyche irrorata is primarily a permanent pool resident but can survive winter drought conditions because it overwinters in the adult stage. Incubation experiments showed that L. externus eggs, which are deposited on the ground in autumn, are adapted to developing over a wide range of temperatures and at cooler temperatures than are the eggs of~ hostilis, which oviposits on riparian vegetation in mid-summer. L. externus eggs developed in both water and air whereas N. hostilis eggs developed only when out of water. SEM studies of the structure of the polysaccharide matrix of the gelatinous egg masses of five species of caddisflies and a snail revealed a relationship between structure and desiccation-resistance. The results of the SEM study indicated that egg mass structure may provide information of taxonomic and phylogenetic importance concerning the Trichoptera. All four species studied are shredders. The two species capable of surviving in temporary pool habitats (L. externus and A. bimaculata) displayed the highest larval growth rates of the four species studied. Laboratory experiments indicated that caddisfly larval feeding preferences are a combination of preferences for food and case-building materials. The patterns of emergence, maturation, mating and ovi position indicated that adult G. irrorata and A. bimaculata did not undergo a reproductive developmental delay whereas adults of both sexes of L. externus and N. hostilis did. The evolution of life history traits (including oviposition out of water) enabling limnephilid caddisflies to survive in temporary pool habitats is viewed in terms of the Thermal Equilibrium Hypothesis. The widespread occurrence of adult reproductive developmental delays in this family is seen as an adaptation enabling animals to avoid the high, metabolically-costly water temperatures of mid-summer. Adult reproductive delays and oviposition out of water may thus have preadapted members of the Limnephilidae to exploiting temporary aquatic habitats."
Berte,SB and Pritchard,G 1986 The life histories of Limnephilus externus (Hagen), Anabolia bimaculata (walker), and Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen) (Trichoptera:Limnephilidae) in a pond in southern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64, 2348-2356.
Abstract: " Limnephilus externus and Anabolia bimaculata are caddisflies that typically inhabit temporary pools, while Nemotaulius hostilis is a species that inhabits permanent pools. In a permanent pond with a fluctuating water level, both groups could be accommodated. The temporary-pool species laid egg masses on the ground above the water level in late summer. Larvae hatched in the autumn but remained in the masses until submersed by the rising water in the spring. Larvae grew at rates faster than those for any permanent-water trichopteran studied to date. Limnephilus externus adults emerged through August and underwent a 1-month reproductive delay. Anabolia bimaculata adults emerged through July, but showed no signs of a reproductive delay. By contrast, N. hostilis oviposited on riparian vegetation and larvae entered the water on hatching in August. Larval growth rates approximated those of other detritivorous shredders found in permanent waters. Over 75% of adult emergence occurred in 1 week at the end of May and adults underwent a reproductive diapause of slightly over a month's duration. The metabolic cost of high water temperatures on cool-adapted limnephilid caddisflies is postulated as the driving force behind the evolution of reproductive diapause in this family."
Demi,LM; Hughes,D and Taylor,BW 2022 Characterizing the role of phosphorus availability and periphytic algae in the food choice and performance of detritivorous caddisflies (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Freshwater Science, 41(1), pp.000-000. PDF
Abstract: "Organisms that rely on detritus as their primary food source may face particularly strong nutritional constraints on growth and development, given the characteristically poor quality of detrital resources. In freshwater ecosystems, the low content of P in detritus often limits detritivore growth. Additionally, a growing body of evidence suggests the biochemical composition of algae, such as essential fatty acids, can limit aquatic detritivore growth. We investigated feeding preference and growth responses of common aquatic detritivores by performing paired feeding-preference and growth experiments on 4 species of larval caddisflies (Trichoptera) from the family Limnephilidae: Asynarchus nigriculus, Anabolia bimaculata, Limnephilus externus, and Ecclisomyia sp. We manipulated both the P content and epiphytic algal biomass of a common detrital food resource (decomposing sedge [Carex sp.]) by conditioning the detritus under 2 different light (ambient, shaded) and P (ambient [low], +P) regimes. We tested 3 hypotheses that describe feeding preferences and performance under different scenarios of P limitation, algal limitation, and co-limitation by P and algae. We observed evidence of preferential feeding behavior for each of the 4 taxa, with 2 species exhibiting preferences for conditioned detritus with high algal biomass and 2 for detritus from the +P treatments. We observed agreement between feeding preferences and performance (growth, growth efficiency, mortality) for only 2 taxa, with A. nigriculus exhibiting higher growth rates and growth efficiency on their preferred high- P detritus, and L. externus experiencing lower mortality when reared on their preferred high algal biomass detritus. These findings provide an initial step toward characterizing the feeding preferences and performance responses of aquatic detritivores to 2 potentially common nutritional constraints: detrital P and algal supply."
Houghton,DC 2013 Demonstration of sex pheromones in Anabolia bimaculata, Hydatophylax argus, and Nemotaulius hostilis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist, 46(1 & 2), p.12.PDF
Abstract: "The presence of extractable semiochemicals for mate attraction is demonstrated experimentally for the first time in Anabolia bimaculata (Walker), Hydatophylax argus (Harris), and Nemotaulius hostilis (Hagen), three species of limnephilid caddisfly. Each species is also the first member of its respective genus to demonstrate pheromone presence. Sex pheromones appear to be wide- spread within the Trichoptera, although < 1% of species have been tested and there remains substantial research still to be done on pheromone demonstration, chemical composition, and release behavior."
Peirson,DS and Marcus,JM 2017 The complete mitochondrial genome of the North American caddisfly Anabolia bimaculata (Insecta: Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 2(2), pp.595-597. PDF
Abstract: " The caddisfly Anabolia bimaculata, is a rapidly-maturing caddisfly found in temporary ponds across western North America. Whole genome Illumina sequencing facilitated the assembly of a complete circular mitochondrial genome of 15,048 bp from A. bimaculata consisting of 78.2% AT nucleotides, 22 tRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and a control region arranged in the canonical and ancestral gene order found in insects. This gene order is consistent with the gene order found in most other caddisfly species. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction places A. bimaculata within a monophyletic Order Trichoptera and sister to the primitive lepidopteran Micropterix calthella (Micropterigidae)."
Walker,F 1852 Catalogue of the Specimens of Neuropterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. London: British Museum Vol. 1 pp. 1-192
Described as Limnephilus bimaculatus
There are 12 lines to an inch.