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Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae of Gunnison County Colorado

Introduction to Hydropsyche
Common Net Spinner Caddis, Spotted Sedge

Pictet, 1834

Updated 3.14.2024

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Albertson,LK and Daniels,MD 2016 Resilience of aquatic net-spinning caddisfly silk structures to common global stressors. Freshwater Biology 61(5)670-679. PDF

Alstad,DN 1980 Comparative biology of the common Utah Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera). American Midland Naturalist 103, 167-174.

Banks,N 1905 Descriptions of new neuropteroid insects. Transactions of American Entomological Society 32, 1-20.

Cain,DJ and Luoma,SN 1998 Metal exposures to native populations of the caddisfly Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) determined from cytosolic and whole body metal concentrations. Hydrobiologia, 386(1-3) 103-117. PDF Cain,DJ; Luoma,SN; Wallace,WG 2004 Linking metal bioaccumulation of aquatic insects to their distribution patterns in a mining-impacted river. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23, 1463-1473. PDF
     Abstract: "Although the differential responses of stream taxa to metal exposure have been exploited for bioassessment and monitoring, the mechanisms affecting these responses are not well understood. In this study, the subcellular partitioning of metals in operationally defined metal-sensitive and detoxified fractions were analyzed in five insect taxa. Samples were collected in two separate years along an extensive metal contamination gradient in the Clark Fork River (MT, USA) to determine if interspecific differences in the metal concentrations of metal-sensitive fractions and detoxified fractions were linked to the differences in distributions of taxa relative to the gradient. Most of the Cd, Cu, and Zn body burdens were internalized and potentially biologically active in all taxa, although all taxa appeared to detoxify metals (e.g., metal bound to cytosolic metal-binding proteins). Metal concentrations associated with metal-sensitive fractions were highest in the mayflies Epeorus albertae and Serratella tibialis, which were rare or absent from the most contaminated sites but occurred at less contaminated sites. Relatively low concentrations of Cu were common to the tolerant taxa Hydropsyche spp. and Baetis spp., which were widely distributed and dominant in the most contaminated sections of the river. This suggested that distributions of taxa along the contamination gradient were more closely related to the bioaccumulation of Cu than of other metals. Metal bioaccumulation did not appear to explain the spatial distribution of the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis, considered to be a bioindicator of metal effects in the river. Thus, in this system the presence/absence of most of these taxa from sites where metal exposure was elevated could be differentiated on the basis of differences in metal bioaccumulation."

Cardinale, B. J.; Gelmann, E. R.; Palmer, M. A. 2004. Net spinning Caddisflies as stream ecosystem engineers: the influence of Hydropsyche on benthic substrate stability. Funct. Ecol. 18: 381-387.

Clements,WH; Carlisle,DN; Lazorchak,JM; Johnson,PC 2000 Heavy metals structure benthic communities in Colorado mountain streams. Ecological Applications 10(2)626-638. Abstract
     Quote from page 633: "Rhyacophila sp.(Fig.5j) was the only caddisfly that showed a significant response to metal level and was lower at medium-metal sites. Differences among metal catagories in abundance of the three other dominant caddisflies, (Brachycentrus americanus, Hydropsyche sp., and Lepidostoma sp.) and the blackfly Simulium sp. were not significant (Fig. 5g, h, i, k)."

Colburn,T 1982 Measurement of low levels of molybdenum in the environment by using aquatic insects. 29, 422-428.

Djernæs,M and Sperling,FAH 2012 Exploring a key synapomorphy: correlations between structure and function in the sternum V glands of Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Insecta). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106: 561-579.
     Abstract: " The sternum V glands are a key synapomorphy that unites Trichoptera with Lepidoptera, but their functional aspects have not been analysed from an evolutionary perspective. We examine phylogenetic trends and correlations between chemical and morphological features of these glands. The most likely ancestral gland compounds are heptan-2-ol, 4-hepten-2-one and -ol, nonan-2-one, and 6-nonen-2-one and -ol, making pheromone production a plausible ancestral function. The most widespread gland compounds (heptan-2-one and -ol and nonan-2-one and -ol) are not known from Apataniidae + Limnephilidae (Trichoptera), which in turn uniquely produce a number of methylated 3-ketones and their corresponding alcohols, probably functioning as pheromones. We propose a functional connection between perforated patches on sternum IV in females and a scaly/dome-covered area around the gland openings, as well as between perforated patches and lack of Trichoptera-type opening muscles. We also propose a functional connection between the shape of the gland reservoirs and the presence of gland reservoir musculature. The perforated patches were significantly correlated with several gland compounds that had double bonds between carbon atoms: the double bonds may lower the viscosity of the compounds, facilitating secretion through the tiny pores of the perforated patches. The production of defensive substances in Pycnopsyche (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) is probably connected to the presence of large, compartmentalized gland reservoirs. Large glands in male Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) are probably linked to male aggregation pheromone production. The relative sizes of sternum V gland reservoirs and fenestral gland reservoirs in female philopotamids (Trichoptera) suggest a complementary function of the two structures. "

Dodds GS and Hisaw FL. 1925. Ecological studies on aquatic insects. IV. Altitudinal range and zonation of mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies in the Colorado Rockies. Ecology 6(4)380-390. Abstract PDF

Elliot,AG; Hubert,WA; Anderson,SH 1997 Habitat associations and effects of urbanization on macroinvertebrates of a small, high-plains stream. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12 1, 61-73.

Eum, J. -h.; Yoe, S. -m.; Seo, Y. -r.; Kang, S. -w.; Han, S. -s. 2005. Characterization of a novel repetitive secretory protein specifically expressed in the modifid salivary gland of Hydropsyche sp. (Trichoptera; Hydropsyhidae). Ins. Biochem. Molec. Biol. 35: 435-441.

Gaufin,AR; Clubb,R and Newell,R 1974 Studies on the tolerance of aquatic insects to low oxygen concentrations. Great Basin Naturalist 34:45-59. PDF
      The authors studied the acute short term tolerance of aquatic insects to low oxygen. They used the 96 hour Median Tolerance Limit. The TLm96 for Hydropsysche sp. was 3.6 mg/l and 32% oxygen saturation.

Geraci,CJ; Zhou,X; Morse,JC and Kjer,KM 2010 Defining the genus Hydropsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) based on DNA and morphological evidence. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29(3):918-933.
     Abstract: " In this paper, we review the history of Hydropsychinae genus-level classification and nomenclature and present new molecular evidence from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (28S) markers supporting the monophyly of the genus Hydropsyche. Both molecular and morphological characters support a broad conservative definition of Hydropsyche. Caledopsyche, Hydatomanicus, and Occutanspsyche are synonymized with Hydropsyche. The following species groups are established: Hydropsyche bronta Group (generally corresponding with Ceratopsyche and Hydropsyche morosa and newae Groups), Hydropsyche colonica Group (generally corresponding with Orthopsyche), Hydropsyche instabilis Group (generally corresponding with Hydropsyche s.s.), and Hydropsyche naumanni Group (generally corresponding with Occutanspsyche). Molecular data recovered Hydromanicus as paraphyletic, and Cheumatopsyche and Potamyia as sister taxa. The genus names Plectropsyche and Streptopsyche are reinstated."

Givens,DR and Smith,SD 1980 A synopsis of western Arctopsychinae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Melanderia 35:1-24.

Gray,LJ and Ward,JV 1979 Food habits of stream benthos at sites of differing food availability. American Midland Naturalist 102 1, 157-167.

Hauer,FR and Stanford,JA 1982 Ecology and life histories of three net-spinning caddisfly species (Hydropsychidae: Hydropsyche) in the Flathead River, Montana. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 1:18-29.

Hornberger,MI; Luoma,SN; Johnson,ML and Holyoak,M 2009 Influence of remediation in a mine-impacted river: Metal trends over large spatial and temporal scales. Ecological Applications, 19(6)1522-1535. PDF

Juras,M; Albertson,LK; Cahoon,J and Johnson,E 2018 Incorporating macroinvertebrate biological structures into gravel-bedded stream fluid dynamics using 3D CFD modelling. Ecological Engineering 119:19-28. Abstract

Kiffney,PM 1996a Main and interactive effects of invertebrate density, predation and metals on a Rocky Mountain stream macroinvertebrate community. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53 7, 1595-1601.

Löfstedt,C; Hansson,BS; Petersson, E; Valeur,P and Richards,A 1994 Pheromonal secretions from glands on the 5th abdominal sternite of hydropsychid and rhyacophilid caddisflies (Trichoptera). Journal of Chemical Ecology (20)153-170.

Mangum,FA and Madrigal,JL 1999 Rotenone effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Strawberry River, Utah: a five-year summary. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 14(1), 125-135. PDF
     Abstract: " Before treatment with a 3 mg/1 Noxfish (0.15 mg/1 active ingredient; rotenone) for 48 hours, benthic invertebrate communities were quantitatively sampled with a modified Surber net. Then spring, summer, and fall post-rotenone samples were taken monthly at each of four Strawberry River stations for five years. Statistical analyses of the data indicated that the application of rotenone had a significant effect on the following species density: Cinygmula sp., Pteronarcella badia, Hesperoperla pacifica, Hydropsyche sp., and Brachycentrus americanus. Thirty-three percent of the benthic invertebrate taxa at the four stations showed resistance to rotenone. Up to 100% of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera species were missing after the second rotenone application. Forty-six percent of the taxa recovered within one year, but 21% of the taxa were still missing after five years. Of the 19 taxa still missing, 47% were Trichoptera, 21% were Ephemeroptera, 16% were Plecoptera, 11% were Coleoptera, and 5% were Megaloptera. " Quote from pages 131 and 132: " This genus [Paraleptophlebia sp.] was observed to be tolerant to rotenone by Engstrom-Heg et al. (1978); they also found the caddisfly Hydropsyche sp. was tolerant to rotenone."

Mecom,JO 1972a Feeding habits of Trichoptera in a mountain stream. Oikos 23: 401-407.

Mecom,JO 1972 Productivity and distribution of Trichoptera larvae in a Colorado mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 40(2): 151 - 176. ISSN: 0018-8158 (Paper) 1573-5117 (Online) DOI: 10.1007/BF00016789 Abstract

Nimmo,AP 1987 The adult Arctopsyche and Hydropsyche (Trichoptera) of Canada and adjacent United States. Questiones Entomologicae 23:1-189.

Nimmo,AP 1995 New species of Hydropsychidae and Limnephilidae (Insecta, Trichoptera) from the far east of Russia, with description of a new genus of Limnephilidae (Limnephilini). Occasional Papers on Trichoptera Taxonomy 1, 1-15.

Peckarsky,BL 1986 Colonization of natural substrates by stream benthos. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43, 700-709.

Piccardo,M; Bertoli,M; Pastorino,P; Barceló,D; Provenza,F; Lesa,D; Anselmi,S; Elia,AC; Prearo,M; Pizzul,E and Renzi,M 2021 Lethal and sublethal responses of Hydropsyche pellucidula (Insecta, Trichoptera) to commercial polypropylene microplastics after different preconditioning treatments. Toxics, 9(10), p.256. PDF
     Abstract: "Microplastics (MPs) pose biological and chemical hazards in aquatic and terrestrial food webs across the globe. Research on microplastic contamination has long focused on marine ecosystems, whereas the toxicological impact on freshwater organisms is still little explored. In this study, the lethal and sublethal response of the freshwater macroinvertebrate Hydropsyche pellucidula exposed to polypropylene MPs after different pre-conditioning treatments was assessed. Field samples were collected in a riverine system (Vipacco river; northeast Italy) to assess the characteristics of the MPs in the aquatic environment Both water and sediment were contaminated by MPs (3.73 ± 2.11 items m-3 per min and 3.33 ± 4.16 items dm-3, respectively). The chemical MPs composition included polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyurethane, polyamide, polypropylene, and polyethylene. Polypropylene (PP), although not the most abundant polymer recorded in the study area, was preferred over the other types according to its abundance in freshwater and H. pellucidula feeding behavior. A housing test was performed to recreate the natural conditions of larvae sampled for a reliable response to the ecotoxicological tests. The microplastics underwent either preconditioning with Vipacco River water (PP-river) and surfactant Triton X-100 (PP-sf) or no pre-treatment (PP). Submersion of microplastics in 10 µg L-1 of surfactant solution for 24 h was sufficient to induce consistent spectral changes and modify the chemical profile of the plastic surface. Mortality rate differed according to treatment: PP and PP-river > positive control > PP-sf > negative control. Integrated biomarker response (IBRv2) and analysis of oxidative stress biomarker levels showed a greater response of superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) in larvae treated with PP conditioned in surfactant. Our findings enhance knowledge on the toxicity of PP and conditioning phases on H. pellucidula larvae."

Pictet,FJ 1834 Recherches pour servir à l'histoire et l'anatomie des Phryganides. A. Cherbuliez, Geneva.

Rader RB and Ward JV. 1988 Influence of regulation on environmental conditions and the macroinvertebrate community in the upper Colorado River. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 2:597-618. PDF
     Quote from page 611 and 612: "The reference site was represented by twelve species of caddisflies, including relatively abundant populations of Arctopsyche grandis and Rhyacophila acropedes. Trichopterans at the regulated site, however, were represented by nine rare and three slightly more abundant caddisflies (Hydroptila sp., Brachycentrus americanus, and Hesperophylax designatus). The abundance of net-spinning caddisflies was significantly reduced in the regulated site compared to both reference and recovery locations (p=0.05), as has been reported by several workers (Armitage and Capper, 1976; Müller, 1962; Ward, 1987).
The thirteen species of Trichoptera in the recovery site included four of the most abundant species of macroinvertebrates at that site: Glossosoma ventrale, Brachycentrus americanus, Lepidostoma ormeum, Oligophlebodes minutes. Ward (1987) summarized the effects of regulation on Trichoptera in Rocky Mountain streams and concluded that Rhyacophila and Hydropsyche were the only genera commonly occurring at both regulated and reference locations, whereas Brachycentrus, Glossosoma, Arctopsyche, and Lepidostoma were often reduced or absent in regulated segments. With the exception of Brachycentrus americanus, which was significantly more abundant in the regulated and recovery sites, compared to the reference site (p=0.05), data from this study concur with previous conclusions concerning the influence of reguation on Trichoptera (Ward, 1987). "

Roline,R 1988 The effects of heavy metals pollution of the upper Arkansas River on the distribution of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 160: 3-8.
     They sampled the Arkansas River upstream and downstream of mine drainage and clean water inputs in 1979 and 1980. After compositing 3 surber samplers in the field, they identified the macroinvertebrates to genus level and used a diversity index to evaluate the health of the macroinvertebrate community. Higher diversity is better. Diversity decreased downstream of heavy metal pollution from the Leadville Drain and California Gulch and increased downstream of clean water inputs.
Quote from page 8: "A tricopteran, Hydropsyche, was found in some abundance throughout the study area except at AR-3 where metal concentrations were highest. "

Ross,HH 1944 The Caddis Flies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Natural History Survey of Illinois 23 Los Angeles, CA. 326 pages.
     Contains keys to species for some adult Hydropsyche.

Ross,HH, and Unzicker,JD 1977 The relationships of the genera of American Hydropsychinae as indicated by phallic structures (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 12:298-312.

Schefter, Patricia W. 2005 Re-evaluation of genera in the subfamily Hydropsychinae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Aquatic Insects 27(2) 133 - 154 DOI: 10.1080/01650420500062758 Abstract

Schefter, Patricia W. and Wiggins, Glenn B. 1986 A systematic study of the nearctic larvae of the Hydropsyche morosa group (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). The Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto Canada.

Schuster, G. A. 1977 A previously unreported gland and associated structure found in the genus Hydropsyche. ASB Bulletin 24:83.

Torres-Ruiz,M, Wehr,JD; Perrone,AA. 2007 Trophic relations in a stream food web: importance of fatty acids for macroinvertebrate consumers. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 509-522. Abstract

Voelz,NJ; Poff,NL; Ward,JV 1994 Differential effects of a brief thermal disturbance on caddisflies (Trichoptera) in a regulated river. American Midland Naturalist 132 1, 173-182.

Voelz,NJ; Ward,JV 1996 Microdistributions, food resources and feeding habits of filter-feeding Trichoptera in the Upper Colorado River. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 137 3, 325-348.

Warnick,SL; Bell,HL 1969 The acute toxicity of some heavy metals to different insects. Journal WPCF 41 2, 280-284.

Wilson,MJ; McTammany,ME and Bohr,HR 2019 Manganese oxides as localized drivers of benthic invertebrate density and community structure. Hydrobiologia, 838, pp.85-98. PDF
     Abstract: "Oxidized manganese (Mn) forms tightly bound, dark precipitates on exposed rock surfaces in rivers, which could impact benthic communities. We combined a field survey with two experiments to identify patterns in benthic invertebrate community structure and potential mechanisms creating these patterns on substrates coated with Mn oxides and on 'uncoated' substrates in a large gravel-bed river. Uncoated substrate had roughly seven times higher densities of benthic macroinvertebrates, particularly fixed retreat filter feeders such as Brachycentrus, Rheotanytarsus, and Hydropsyche, while clinger taxa had similar densities between coated and uncoated substrates. In a substrate preference experiment conducted in laboratory microcosms, nymphs of a swimming mayfly (Isonychia bicolor) were more likely to avoid Mn-coated than uncoated substrate, while nymphs of a clinger mayfly family (Heptageniidae) showed no significant substrate preference or avoidance. In a field colonization experiment, invertebrate communities established on Mn-coated substrate had significantly higher variability in taxonomic composition but similar densities to communities on uncoated rocks. Combined, these results demonstrate a large difference in biological communities and describe patterns that occur during community assembly on Mn-coated substrate. While established communities responded negatively to Mn oxides, our results indicated coated substrate might also create community heterogeneity within large river riffle habitats."

Zuellig,RE; Kondratieff,BC; Rhodes,HA 2002 Benthos recovery after an eposodic sediment release into a Colorado Rocky Mountain river. Western North American Naturalist 62 1, 59-72.

Brown,WS 2004 Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA