Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Arctopsyche grandis (Banks) 1900
Great Grey Spotted Sedge, McKenzie Caddis
Updated 15 Feb 2016
Many Arctopsyche larvae were found during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in the East River Didymosphenia bloom. There are larval retreats for several larval instars in the photo. Look for cave like holes.
The larvae of this large Hydropsychid caddisfly are very common in the East River near and above Gothic. It has two color morphs. Some animals have a white-striped head and some have a brown head without the stripe. Most kick samples from the East River will have an Arctopsyche larvae or maybe 10 of them. Gently overturning rocks in the stream allows you to see Arctopsyche larvae in their retreats, you may be able to see their nets as well.
On this website:
Introduction to the Hydropsychidae
Photos, Map, Museum specimens, DNA - Barcodinglife.org
Illustration - University of Alberta Entomology Collection Species page
Has illustration of male genitalia, description, habitat information, range and more.
Photos and description from McKenzie River in Oregon http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~dmason/Mckenzie/bugs/arctopsyche.html
Common and widespread. The Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS) Database shows this species is present 1 mile below Ohio, which probably means Ohio City and Ohio Creek. In my collection and experience A. grandis is found in the East River near Gothic, East River above confluence with Cement Creek, Cement Creek, Coal Creek, Copper Creek, Rustlers Gulch, Brush Creek, Taylor River, Gunnison River at McCabe Lane, and Willow Creek in Taylor Park. It is undoubtably present in many other streams in the County.
Alstad,DN 1980 Comparative biology of the common Utah Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera). American Midland Naturalist 103, 167-174.
Banks,N 1900. New genera and species of Nearctic neuropteroid insects. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 26:239-260.
Described in the genus Hydropsyche.
Banks,N 1943 Notes and descriptions of Nearctic Trichoptera. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 92: 341-369, plates 1-6.
Described as Arctopsyche inermis which was later synonymized with A. grandis.
Cain,DJ; Luoma,SN and Wallace,WG 2004 Linking metal bioaccumulation of aquatic insects to their distribution patterns in a mining-impacted river. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23, 1463-1473.
Cuffney,TF and Minshall,GW 1981 Life history and bionomics of Arctopsyche grandis (Trichoptera) in a central Idaho stream. Holarctic Ecology 4(4) 252-262. Abstract and first page
Cushman,RM 2014 Biogeography of the caddisfly genus Arctopsyche McLachlan, 1868 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in North America. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 90(4). PDF
Abstract: " This paper summarizes the distribution of the four species of the caddisfly genus Arctopsyche McLachlan, 1868 in North America and describes natural and man-induced factors that could account for that distribution. It proposes some possible future scenarios of speciation, local extirpation, or extinction."
DeJong, GD 2002. Variation in abdominal sa2 and sa3 setation in larvae of Arctopsyche grandis (Banks) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104:242-243.
DeWalt,RE; Stewart,KW; Moulton,SR and Kennedy,JH 1994 Summer emergence of mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies from a Colorado mountain stream. Southwestern Naturalist 39 3, 249-256.
Djernæs,M and Sperling,FAH 2012 Exploring a key synapomorphy: correlations between structure and function in the sternum V glands of Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Insecta). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106: 561-579.
Quote from page 28: "A thumb-shaped protuberance is found in Stenopsychodes mjoebergi (Stenopsychidae) (Figure 2-2 A) and Arctopsyche grandis (Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae) (Figures 2-6 A, B; 2-19 B). A smaller protuberance is found in Parapsyche elsis (Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae) (Figure 2-19 C). "
Givens,DR and Ruiter, DE 2015 Clarification of the taxonomic status and distribution of Arctopsyche inermis Banks, 1943 and Arctopsyche ladogensis (Kolenati, 1859) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae: Arctopsychinae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 91(2) 192-195. Full Text
They found that Arctopsyche inermis is different after all from Arctopsyche grandis and describe the male genitalia to prove it. These species are sympatric which means they live in the same habitat. It is possible that our two color morphs of larval A. grandis seen in the upper East River drainage of Gunnison County are these two species.
Quote from page 192: "The shape of the male tergum X will separate A. inermis from A. grandis (Schmid, 1968). An examination of 81 males of A. inermis and 214 males of A. grandis indicates there is consistency in the structure of tergum X of the male. In all the males examined, tergum X in A. inermis narrows gradually to a very long, slender point and those of A. grandis, while narrowing to a point, do so abruptly, never as a long, slender tapered apex (Schmid, 1968). Also the basal area of tergum X is thicker in A. inermis than A. grandis, evident in both the dorsal and lateral aspect. "
Givens,DR and Smith,SD 1980 A synopsis of western Arctopsychinae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Melanderia 35:1-24.
Hauer,RF and Stanford,JA 1981 Larval specialization and phenotypic variation in Arctopsyche grandis (Trichoptera: Hydrospsychidae). Ecology 62(3)645-653. Abstract PDF
Hauer,FR; Stanford,JA and Ward,JV 1989 Serial discontinuities in a Rocky mountain river. II. Distribution and abundance of trichoptera. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 3(1) 177-182.
Abstract: "River regulation in the headwaters and middle reaches of the Gunnison River, Colorado, significantly altered distributions and abundances of Trichoptera fauna. Twenty-five species were collected from mainstream samples, with the greatest species richness occurring at an unregulated, rhithron segment above the central reach dams. At sites immediately below the three hypolimnial-release dams and a reregulation dam, species richness was reduced 35-90 per cent and abundance > 95 per cent. Net-spinning caddisflies were the dominant trichopterans at unregulated sites; Arctopsyche grandis in the upper reaches (218 organisms, 586 mg dry mass m-2) and Hydropsyche cockerelli, H. occidentalis and Cheumatopsyche pettiti in the lower river (9041 total organisms, 6621 mg m-2), downstream from the last dam. The observed distributional pattern of low trichopteran densities in dam tailwaters and high hydropsychid densities at sites 60-80 km below the central reach dams is a classic expression of continuum resets and adjustments in response to stream regulation as predicted by the Serial Discontinuity Concept. "
Herrmann,SJ; Ruiter,DE and Unzicker,JD 1986 Distribution and records of Colorado Trichoptera. Southwestern Naturalist 31 4, 421-457.
They note the habitat for this species is streams and rivers, the altitudinal range is 1913m to 3036m and adult collection dates are 10 May to 10 October. Quote from page 427: "This large hydropsychid is widespread and easily collected with an ultraviolet light." They list this species as present in Gunnison county.
Jannot,JE and Kerans,BL 2003 Body size, sexual size dimorphism, and Rensch's rule in adult Hydropsychid caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 81, 1956-1964.
As part of their investigations, the authors measured 20 museum specimens of Arctopsyche grandis preserved in ethanol finding that adult males were 9.63 ± 0.24 mm in length and females were 12.55 ± 0.22 mm in length. They measured length from the center of the head between the eyes to the posterior margin of the 8th segment. Their data also indicates the subfamily Arctopsychinae contains on average the largest insects in the family Hydropsychidae. More details
Kashian DR; Prusha BA and Clements WH. 2004 Influence of total organic carbon and UV-B radiation on zinc toxicity and bioaccumulation in aquatic communities. Environmental Science & Technology. 38(23):6371-6376.
Abstract: "The effects of total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-B radiation on Zn toxicity and bioaccumulation in a Rocky Mountain stream community were assessed in a 10-d microcosm experiment. We predicted that TOC would mitigate Zn [zinc] toxicity and that the combined effects of Zn and UV-B would be greater than Zn alone. However, TOC did not mitigate Zn toxicity in this study. In fact, treatments with TOC plus Zn had significantly lower community respiration as compared with the controls and Zn concentrations associated with the periphyton increased in the presence of TOC. UV-B had no additive effect on periphyton Zn accumulation or community respiration. Heptageniid mayflies (Ephemeroptera) were particularly sensitive to Zn, and reduced abundances were observed in all Zn treatments. UV-B did not additionally impact Heptageniid abundances; however UV-B did have a greater effect on macroinvertebrate drift than Zn alone. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (groups typically classified as sensitive to disturbance) were found in highest numbers in the drift of UV-B + Zn treatments. Measures of Zn accumulation in the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis, periphyton biomass, and total macroinvertebrate abundance were not sufficiently sensitive to differentiate effects of TOC, UV-B, and Zn. These results indicate that UV-B and TOC affect Zn bioavailability and toxicity by impacting species abundance, behavior, and ecosystem processes. "
Kiffney,PM and Clements,WH 1993 Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by benthic invertebrates at the Arkansas River, Colorado. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12, 1507-1517.
Quote from page 1512: "Variation among taxa: Metal concentrations in organisms collected from station AR-5 [impacted by heavy metal pollution from California Gulch] (fall, spring, summer) varied significantly among taxa (Fig 7). The highest concentrations were generally found in the mayfly Baetis spp., the stonefly Pteronarcella badia, and the caddisfly A. grandis, whereas the lowest levels were measured in the two predators, Skwala americana, and Rhyacophila spp."
Lowe,WH and Hauer,FR 1999 Ecology of two large, net-spinning caddisfly species in a mountain stream: distribution, abundance, and metabolic response to a thermal gradient. Can. J. Zool./Rev. can. zool. 77(10): 1637-1644. Abstract
Mecom,JO 1972a Feeding habits of Trichoptera in a mountain stream. Oikos 23: 401-407. Abstract and first page
Abstract: " The gut contents of more than 900 Trichoptera larvae from the St. Vrain River of Colorado were determined by Millipore filter analysis. They ingested a mixed diet of detritus, vascular plants, diatoms and other algae (e.g. Ulothrix). Vascular plant fragments, detritus, and filamentous algae were the major food categories ingested from late spring through early summer, while diatoms were most commonly consumed in mid-winter and early spring. Seasonal dietary changes were apparently related to general availability of organic material and larval microhabitat. Hydropsyche sp., Arctopsyche grandis, Hydropsyche occidentalis and Brachycentrus americanus were predatory or cannibalistic during a brief period from May to August. This carnivorous behavior was not directly correlated either to species crowding or population developmental changes. "
Mecom,JO 1972 Productivity and distribution of Trichoptera larvae in a Colorado mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 40(2): 151 - 176. Abstract
Milne,LJ and Milne,MJ 1938. The Arctopsychidae of continental America north of Mexico (Trichoptera). Bulletin of the Brooklin Entomological Society 33:97-110.
Nimmo,AP 1987 The adult Arctopsyche and Hydropsyche (Trichoptera) of Canada and adjacent United States. Questiones Entomologicae 23:1-189.
Peckarsky,BL 1980 Influence of detritus on colonization of stream invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37, 957-963.
Peckarsky,BL 1983 Biotic interactions or abiotic limitations? A model of lotic community structure. In: Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Eds: Fontaine III,Thomas D; Bartell,Steven M Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 303-323.
Peckarsky,BL 1985 Do predaceous stoneflies and siltation affect the structure of stream insect communities colonizing enclosures? Canadian Journal of Zoology (63) 1519-1530. PDF
Prusha,BA; Clements,WH 2004 Landscape attributes, dissolved organic C, and metal bioaccumulation in aquatic macroinvertebrates (Arkansas River Basin, Colorado). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23 2, 327-339.
Rader,RB and Ward,JV 1988 Influence of regulation on environmental conditions and the macroinvertebrate community in the upper Colorado River. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 2:597-618.
Quote from page 611: "The reference site was represented by twelve species of caddisflies, including relatively abundant populations of Arctopsyche grandis and Rhyacophila acropedes. Trichopterans at the regulated site, however, were represented by nine rare and three slightly more abundant caddisflies (Hydroptila sp., Brachycentrus americanus, and Hesperophylax designatus). The abundance of net-spinning caddisflies was significantly reduced in the regulated site compared to both reference and recovery locations (p=0.05), as has been reported by several workers (Armitage and Capper, 1976; Müller, 1962; Ward, 1987). "
Ruse,LP and Herrmann,SJ 2000 Plecoptera and Trichoptera species distribution related to environmental characteristics of the metal-polluted Arkansas River, Colorado. Western North American Naturalist 60 (1) 57-65. PDF
Schmid,F 1968 La famille des Arctopsychides (Trichoptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Quebec 1:4-84.
Givens and Ruiter (2015) noticed these figures are reversed.
Schmidt,TS; Clements,WH; Zuellig,RE; Mitchell,KA; Church,SE; Wanty,RB, ... and Lamothe,PJ 2011 Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects. Environmental science and Technology, 45(16) 7004-7010. PDF
Smith,SD 1968 The Arctopsychinae of Idaho. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 44, 102-112.
Contains the first description of the larvae of Arctopsyche grandis. Also describes the difference in genitalia between male A. inermis and A. grandis. In spite of this, the author synonymizes A. inermis and A. grandis. Givens and Ruiter, 2015
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Data Warehouse (NAWQA) shows this species is present in Gunnison County. Data as of 1Sep2005
Voelz,NJ and Ward,JV 1996a Microdistributions, food resources and feeding habits of filter-feeding Trichoptera in the Upper Colorado River. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 137 (3) 325-348.
Voelz,NJ and Ward,JV 1996b Microdistributions of filter-feeding caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) in a regulated Rocky Mountain river. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 654-666.
Wallace, JB 1975 The larval retreat and food of Arctopsyche; with phylogenetic notes on feeding adaptations in Hydropsychidae larvae (Trichoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 68(1) 167-173. PDF
Abstract: "Arctopsyche larvae generally construct somewhat cornucopia-shaped dwellings at the top and sides of large rocks in swift mountain streams and spin a capture net across a U-shaped frame at the anterior end of the larval abode. There is an increase in net mesh size in successive larval instars. The individual meshes of mature larval capture nets are the largest found to date in the Hydropsychidae. Based on larval foregut contents, 2nd instars are about 50% plant detritivores and 50% predators. In the last 2 instars foregut contents consisted of ca. 90% insect fragments and 10% plant material. The structure of the nets and larval abodes supports the placement of the Arctopsychinae as primitive Hydropsychidae. In the evolution of hydropsychid larvae there is a tendency toward more complicated larval feeding structures and smaller capture net mesh sizes."
Ward,JV; Kondratieff,BC and Zuellig,RE 2002 An Illustrated Guide to the Mountain Stream Insects of Colorado. 2nd ed. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 219 pages.
Figure 78 from this book of an Arctopsyche grandis larvae