Trichoptera: Apataniidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Apatania zonella(Zetterstedt) 1840
Updated 19 April 2013
DescriptionWiggins, 1996 notes that the larvae of all Apatania can be separated from the rest of the Apataniidae (only Allomyia in Gunnison County) by the absence of metanotal sa1 sclerites with the setae in a straight line. However Allomyia gnathos has a very distinctive head shape, once you´ve seen it, you will never confuse these species.
Life HistoryOne of the most interesting things about A. zonella is that most populations are all female. The females are able to reproduce parthenogenetically or without males! This is an advantage for a caddisfly that lives in artic or alpine environments around the world.
Good LinksOn this website:
Introduction to the Apataniidae
Photos, Map, Museum specimens, DNA - Barcodinglife.org
Illustration - from the University of Alberta Entomology Collection
Has illustration of male genitalia, description, habitat information, range and more.
NotesHistorically this genus has been discussed as Radema.
ReferencesChen,YE 1992 The larva and pupae of Apatania praevolans Morse (Trichoptera: Apataniidae), with a key to described larvae of North American species of Apatania. Aquatic Insects 14 1, 49-55.
Has a key that separates the Apatania species of North America. Also lists the authors, descriptions and diagnoses for the larvae of Apatania of the world that were described as of the time of this study.
Corbet,PS 1966 Parthenogenesis in caddisflies (Trichoptera). Canadian Journal of Zoology 44, 981-982.
Quote from page 981: "Throughout its range, Apatania zonella (Zetterstedt) (Apataniidae) is represented wholly or predominantly by females (Lack 1933, Lack 1934, Mosely 1928) which average more than 99% in collections, although copulation in nature has been witnessed (Lack, 1933). At Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Canada (71;° 18´ W., 81° 49´ N.), where females comprise about 96% of active adults, a nulliparous individual in captivity laid 98 eggs, of which 91 hatched. Her receptaculum seminis was empty. The likelihood that this female had exhausted an endowment of sperm on one egg-batch, which nevertheless showed high viability, is extremely small."
Djernæs,M and Sperling,FAH 2012 Exploring a key synapomorphy: correlations between structure and function in the sternum V glands of Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Insecta). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106: 561-579.
Herrmann,SJ; Ruiter,DE and Unzicker,JD 1986 Distribution and records of Colorado Trichoptera. Southwestern Naturalist 31(4), 421-457.
Quote from page 439: "Apatania zonella is rare and only found in the highest of alpine lentic habitats." This is the only species of Apatania listed for Colorado. They have A. zonella in the family Limnephilidae.
Lack,D 1933 XXII.—Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera from Bear Island. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 12(68), 205-210.
Lepneva, SG 1966 Fauna SSSR, Rucheiniki, vol.2, no.2. Lichinki i kukolki podotryada tsel'nosh-chupikovykh. Zoologicheskii Institut Akademii Nauk SSSR, n.s. 95 [In Russian. Translated into English as: Fauna of the U.S.S.R.; Trichoptera, vol. 2, no. 2. Larvae and Pupae of Integripalpia. Published by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971.]
Describes the larvae of A. zonella among other things.
Nimmo, A 1971 The adult Rhyacophilidae and Limnephilidae (Trichoptera) of Alberta and eastern British Columbia and their post glacial origin. Quaestiones Entomologicae 73: 3-234.
Schmid, F. 1953 Contribution à l'étude de la sous-famille des Apataniinae (Trichoptera, Limnophilidae). I. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 96 (1-2): 109-167.
Discusses the taxonomy of adult Apatania in French.
Schmid, F. 1954 Contribution à l'étude de la sous-famille des Apataniinae (Trichoptera, Limnophilidae). II. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 97 (1-2): 1-74.
Wiggins, GB 1996 Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). 2nd Edition. University of Toronto Press, 457 pages.
Zetterstedt,JW 1840 Insecta Lapponica. Lipsiae, Voss. 1140 pages.
Described as Phryganea stigmatella zonella
Brown,WS 2005 Trichoptera of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA