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Stoneflies - Plecoptera: Nemouridae of Gunnison County, Colorado

Introduction to Zapada Forestflies, Winter Stoneflies

Ricker, 1952
Updated 20 September 2020

Provisional Species List

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Key to the Zapada Nymphs
Introduction to the Nemouridae


Baumann,RW 1979 Nearctic stonefly genera as indicators of ecological parameters (Plecoptera: Insecta). The Great Basin Naturalist, 241-244. PDF
     The genus Zapada is present in cold lotic (stream or river) habitats, as well as cold lentic (lake) habitats.
Abstract: "Selected stonefly genera found in North America are classified as to their occurrence in: cold lotic, warm lotic, or lentic habitats. Most genera occur only in the cold lotic, but several occur both in cold and warm lotic systems. Few are found exclusively in warm lotic habitats and almost none in lentic. Lake or true lentic inhabits are found to usually be cold lotic species which have adapted to life in the wave-washed shores of cold mountain lakes. Even though data at the specific level would be even more useful, especially where different faunal regions are involved, stoneflies are probably the best insect indicators of aquatic environmental quality at the generic level."

Baumann,RW, Gaufin,AR and Surdick,RF 1977 The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 31, 1-208.
     Quote from page 41: "This is the most common genus of the family Nemouridae in the Rocky Mountains. Zapada species are found in almost every flowing water habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains and Z. cinctipes is the most vagile species in the whole group, Euholognatha.
The genus is distinguished by the presence of two pairs of cervical gills, one on the inside and one on the outside of the lateral cervical sclerites (fig. 139).
Zapada species are abundant in accumulations of leaf material and probably act as shredders of allochthonous material in heterotrophic lotic ecosystems."

Carlisle,DM and Clements,WH 2003 Growth and secondary production of aquatic insects along a gradient of Zn contamination in Rocky Mountain streams. Journal North American Benthological Society 22(4), 582-597. Abstract and entire paper

Cather,MR and Gaufin,AR 1976 Comparative ecology of three Zapada species of Mill Creek, Wasatch Mountains, Utah (Plecoptera: Nemouridae). American Midland Naturalist 464-471.
     Abstract: "Three species of Zapada (Plecoptera) were studied in Mill Creek, Wasatch Mountains, Utah, and their life histories, growth rates, distribution and emergence compared. All species, Z. haysi (Ricker), Z. cinctipes (Banks) and Z. columbiana (Claassen) have a univoltine life history and a slow seasonal life cycle.
Temporal and spatial distributions and staggered emergence periods serve to ecologically separate these species. All three grow most rapidly in autumn and early winter, with a seasonal succession in the maximum absolute growth rates. Maximum size overlap between Zapada haysi and Z. cinctipes occurs in spring prior to and during emergence when growth is complete, whereas minimum overlap occurs in autumn when growth is fastest. Zapada haysi and Z. columbiana were found more at the upper cooler stations and Z. cinctipes at the lower stations. Zapada cinctipes was collected from late February to late June (one ♀ in mid-January), Z. columbiana mostly in March and Z. haysi from early April to mid-June.
The mean size of the adults of Zapada cinctipes decreased as emergence progressed and may be related to increasing stream temperatures and photoperiod."

DeWalt,RE and Stewart,KW 1995 Life histories of stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the Rio Conejos of southern Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 55, 1-18. PDF

Ricker, WE 1952 Systematic studies in Plecoptera. Indiana University Publications, Science Series 18, 200 pages, Bloomington, Indiana.
     Described the genus Zapada.

Ricker,WE 1992 Origin of stonefly names proposed by Ricker and collaborators. Perla, 18(1) 12 pages. PDF
      Quote from page 11: "Zapada Ricker 1952 (as sg. of Nemoura). Russian zapad = west. Occurs mainly in western North America. "

Short,RA; Canton,SP and Ward,JV 1980 Detrital processing and associated macroinvertebrates in a Colorado mountain stream. Ecology, 61(4), 727-732. PDF

Stewart,KW and Ricker,WE 1997 The stoneflies of the Yukon. pgs 201-222 in Danks,HV and Downes,JA (Eds.), Insects of the Yukon. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa. 1034 pp.
     Quote from page 210 and 211: "Nearctic; 10 species, 8 of which are western, from Alaska and Yukon to California and New Mexico. Adults 5-10 mm, emerging mainly Februaary-August, depending on elevation and latitude. Some combination of Zapada species is common in most streams of western mountain ranges and high-latitude streams. Nymphs are shredders, found mainly in coarse particulate organic matter. Ubiquitous species generally have univoltine life cycles at southern latitudes and semivoltine cycles in Canada. "

Tronstad,LM; Hotaling,S; Giersch,JJ; Wilmot,OJ and Finn,DS 2020 Headwaters fed by subterranean ice: potential climate refugia for mountain stream communities?. BioRxiv, p.788273.

Wipfli,MS, Hudson,J and Caouette,J 1998 Influence of salmon carcasses on stream productivity: response of biofilm and benthic macroinvertebrates in southeastern Alaska, U.S.A. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55(6): 1503-1511 Abstract

Brown,WS 2005 Plecoptera of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA