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Stoneflies - Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae of Gunnison County, Colorado

Introduction to Suwallia - Green Stoneflies

Ricker 1943
Updated 13 Jan 2024
TSN 103254

Provisional Species list

Suwallia lineosa
Suwallia pallidula
Suwallia starki

Good Links

On this website:
Chloroperlidae Introduction
Identification Keys:
Suwallia Females
Suwallia Males

Other Websites:
Plecoptera Species File Suwallia

Photos, Map, Museum specimens, DNA - Barcodinglife.org


Alexander,KD and Stewart,KW 1997a Further considerations of mate searching behavior and communication in adult stoneflies (Plecoptera); first report of tremulation in Suwallia (Chloroperlidae). In: Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera: Biology-Ecology-Systematics. Eds: Landolt,P; Sartori,M MTL, Fribourg, 107-112.

Alexander,KD and Stewart,KW 1997b The importance of aedeagal characters in species delineation and revision of the stonefly tribe Suwalliini Surdick (Chloroperlidae). In: Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera: Biology-Ecology-Systematics. Eds: Landolt,P; Sartori,M MTL, Fribourg, 484-488.

Alexander,KD; Stewart,KW 1999 Revision of Genus Suwallia Ricker (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 125 3, 185-250.
     This paper describes Suwallia starki (found in our area) among several other new Suwallia species. They study species from North America, Japan and Russia making this an interesting and broader treatment of the genus. This brings the total of Suwallia species up to 23. They include scanning electron microscope images of male genetalia, epiproct, and egg with drawings of the sclerotized rod of aedeagus, female subgenital plate and adult color patterns.

Baumann,RW, Gaufin,AR and Surdick,RF 1977 The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 31, 1-208. PDF
     Quote from page 171: "Males of the genus Suwallia are characterized by a slender, curved finger-like process projecting inward near the base of each cercus (fig. 487). The epiproct is membranous, with a small hairy, lightly chitinized tip (fig. 488)."
Don't use this key for species identifications anymore, there are many more species than the three common ones they discuss! Use Alexander and Stewart 1999 instead

DeWalt,RE; Hopkins,H; Neu-Becker,U and Stueber,G 2024 Suwallia Ricker, 1943. Plecoptera Species File. Retrieved on 2024-01-13 at https://plecoptera.speciesfile.org/otus/894260/overview
     I read one or another of the stonefly webpages from Plecoptera Species File regularly and sometimes add papers or other information I learned to the website you're reading https://www.gunnisoninsects.org/ :-)

Houston,DD; Satler,JD; Stack,TK; Carroll,HM; Bevan,AM; Moya,AL and Alexander,KD 2022 A phylogenomic perspective on the evolutionary history of the stonefly genus Suwallia (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae) revealed by ultraconserved genomic elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 166, p.107320. PDF
     Abstract: "Evolutionary biologists have long sought to disentangle phylogenetic relationships among taxa spanning the tree of life, an increasingly important task as anthropogenic influences accelerate population declines and species extinctions, particularly in insects. Phylogenetic analyses are commonly used to identify unique evolutionary lineages, to clarify taxonomic designations of the focal taxa, and to inform conservation decisions. Advances in DNA sequencing techniques have increasingly facilitated the ability of researchers to apply genomic methods to phylogenetic analyses, even for non-model organisms. Stoneflies are non-model insects that are important bioindicators of the quality of freshwater habitats and landscape disturbance as they spend the immature stages of their life cycles in fresh water, and the adult stages in terrestrial environments. Phylogenetic relationships within the stonefly genus Suwallia (Insecta: Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae) are poorly understood, and have never been assessed using molecular data. We used DNA sequence data from genome-wide ultraconserved element loci to generate the first molecular phylogeny for the group and assess its monophyly. We found that Palearctic and Nearctic Suwallia do not form reciprocally monophyletic clades, and that a biogeographic history including dispersal, vicariance, and founder event speciation via jump dispersal best explains the geographic distribution of this group. Our results also strongly suggest that Neaviperla forcipata (Neave, 1929) is nested within Suwallia, and the concept of the genus Suwallia should be revised to include it. Thus, we formally propose a new taxonomic combination wherein Neaviperla forcipata (Neave, 1929) is reclassified as Suwallia forcipata (Neave, 1929). Moreover, some Suwallia species (e.g., S. amoenacolens, S. kerzhneri, S. marginata, S. pallidula, and S. starki) exhibit pronounced cryptic diversity that is worthy of further investigation. These findings provide a first glimpse into the evolutionary history of Suwallia, improve our understanding of stonefly diversity in the tribe Suwallini, and highlight areas where additional research is needed."

Ricker,WE 1943. Stoneflies of Southwestern British Columbia. Indiana University Publications, Science Series 12 145 pages, Bloomington, Indiana.

Ricker,WE 1992 Origin of stonefly names proposed by Ricker and collaborators. Perla, 18(1) 12 pages. PDF
      Quote from page 10: "Suwallia Ricker 1943 (as sg. of Alloperla). The Suwállies or Scowillies are a clan of Salish Indians living near Chilliwack, British Columbia. "

Stewart,KW 2001 Vibrational communication (drumming) and mate-searching behavior of stoneflies (Plecoptera); evolutionary considerations. In Trends in Research in Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera (pp. 217-225). Springer US.
     Abstract: "A long recognized but little explored mode of intersexual communication in insects is use of low-frequency substrate-borne vibrational signals. Representatives of 10 insect orders are known to have adopted this mode; range of communication, informational content and receiver integration of signals and energy costs are discussed. Arctoperlarian stoneflies represent the epitome of evolution of vibrational communication. Their ancestral signals were monophasic volleys of evenly spaced drumbeats. Derived signals to achieve species-specificity and possibly to enable sexual.selection or some measure of reproductive fitness has involved modification of the ancestral form toward complex signals through: (1) changes in the rhythmic patterning of calls, (2) patterns of ♂-♀ duetting, and/or changes in the method of signal production such as rubbing or tremulation. Proposed paradigms for the evolution of vibrational communication and evolution of signal patterns are presented, with examples of the signals of several arctoperlarian species. The entire mating system of Arctoperlaria is discussed, and searching behavior in relation to vibrational communication is presented for Pteronarcella badia, Claassenia sabulosa, Perlinella drymo and Suwallia sp."

Stewart,KW and Szczytko,SW 1983 Drift of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera in two Colorado rivers. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology. 2(3)117-131. PDF

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Data Warehouse (NAWQA) shows this genus present in Gunnison County. Data as of 1Sep2005

Brown,WS 2006 Plecoptera or Stoneflies of Gunnison County, Colorado