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Plecoptera of Gunnison County, Colorado

Introduction to the Nemouridae

Winter Stoneflies, Tiny Early Winter Black Stonefly, Tiny Late Winter Black Stonefly, Spring Stoneflies, Nemourid Stonefly

Updated 8 Feb 2024
TSN 102517
This shows the classic "Neumoridae X" on the top part of the wing.

Provisional Species List

Amphinemura banksi
Amphineura linda
Malenka californica
Malenka coloradensis
Malenka flexura
Podmosta decepta
Podmosta delicatula
Prostoia besametsa
Zapada cinctipes
Zapada frigida
Zapada haysi
Zapada oregonensis

Good Links

Other Websites:
Nemouridae - Aquatic Insects of Michigan by Ethan Bright


Allan,JD 1978 Trout predation and the size composition of stream drift. Limnology and Oceanography 23 6, 1231-1237. PDF

Allan,JD 1987 Macroinvertebrate drift in a Rocky Mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 144, 261-268.

Baumann,RW 1975 Revision of the stonefly family Nemouridae (Plecoptera): A study of the world fauna at the generic level. Smithsonian Contributions Zoology 211, 1-74. PDF

Baumann,RW, Gaufin,AR and Surdick,RF 1977 The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 31, 1-208. PDF
     Quote from page 17: "The members of this family are the most common stoneflies in most habitats in the Rocky Mountains. The nymphs are small and stout bodied with numerous spines and hairs on the dorsal surface and appendages (fig. 63). The adults are easily recognized by the distinctive nemourid "X" in the forewings at the cord (figs 140-143).
This family is very important from an ecological standpoint because they are often the dominant primary consumers in flowing water ecosystems. They are detritovores and often act as shredders of heterotrophic material, such as leaves, that enter the ecosystem from outside."

Cummins,KW; Wilzbach,MA; Gates,DM; Perry,JB and Taliaferro,WB 1989 Shredders and riparian vegetation. BioScience, 39(1), pp.24-30. PDF

Duffield,RM and Nelson,CH 1998 Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the diet of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchell) in Libby Creek, Wyoming, USA. Hydrobiologia 380, 59-65.
     Quote from page 61: " The Nemouridae were represented by five species in the stomach samples. Malenka flexura, Podmosta decepta, P. delicatula, Zapada cinctipes, and Z. haysi were recovered largely as larvae. The latter species, constituting 12.3% of the total stonefly dietary component, was the second most abundant species recovered. Adult female:male ratio of this species was approximately 1.2:1.

Hotaling,S; Shah,AA; Dillon,ME; Giersch,JJ; Tronstad,LM; Finn,DS; Woods,HA and Kelley,JL 2021 Cold tolerance of mountain stoneflies (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from the high Rocky Mountains. Western North American Naturalist, 81(1), pp.54-62. PDF

Kondratieff,BC and Baumann,RW 2002 A review of the stoneflies of Colorado with description of a new species of Capnia (Plecoptera: Capniidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 128(3) 385-401.
     Has brief comments on many of the stoneflies of Colorado.

Mihuc,TB; Mihuc,JR 1995 Trophic ecology of five shredders in a Rocky Mountain stream. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10(3) 209-216. PDF

Stark,BP; Szczytko,SW; Baumann,RW 1986 North American stoneflies (Plecoptera): systematics, distribution, and taxonomic references. Great Basin Naturalist 46, 383-397. PDF

Stewart,KW and Alexander,NH 2008 The nymphs of three Nemouridae species (Plecoptera) from Oregon temporary headwaters streams. Transactions of the North American Entomological Society 134: 173-183. PDF

Stewart,KW and Stark,BP 2002 Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera. 2nd edition The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio. 510 pages.

Brown,WS 2004 Plecoptera or Stoneflies of Gunnison County, Colorado