Stoneflies - Plecoptera: Leuctridae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Introduction to the Rolled-wing StonefliesNeedle Flies, Tiny Late Winter Black Stonefly, Tiny Winter Blacks, Winter Stoneflies
Updated 21 May 2016
Provisional Species ListParaleuctra vershina
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Photos - From BugGuide http://bugguide.net/node/view/114
ReferencesBaumann,RW, Gaufin,AR and Surdick,RF 1977 The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 31, 1-208.
Quote from page 94: "This family [Leuctridae] is represented in the Rocky Mountains by five [They discuss 4 genera, but Pomoleuctra has been split out since this publication] genera in two subfamilies. The adults are ususally small and dark grey or black in color. The wings are uniformly dark in color and they tend to curl laterally producing a slightly rolled appearance. The adult cerci are composed of single segment in both males and females. (figs 306, 328).
The nymphs are lightly colored and the wing pads are parallel with the body axis. They are similar to the nymphs of the Capniidae but are usually much more elongate.
The adults emerge in the spring or summer and a few species as late as early fall. They are often found in springs and the genus Perlomyia seems to be limited to springs and spring fed habitats."
Quote about the genus Paraleuctra from page 96: "Paraleuctra exhibits a holarctic distribution pattern and can be common in Rocky Mountain streams.
The males have heavily sclerotized cerci that terminate in a fork-like apex (figs. 306, 307). Females are difficult to separate because of their simple bilobed subgenital plate (fig. 311). Two species groups are apparent: the P. sara group, characterized by a simple elongate titillator and the P. occidentalis group, that has a titillator with an enlarged variable apex.
The adults emerge in the spring and summer months and are most common in waters influenced by springs. "
Briers,RA; Cariss,HM; Geoghegan,R and Gee,JHR 2005 The lateral extent of the subsidy from an upland stream to riparian lycosid spiders. Ecography 28(2): 165-170.Abstract
Cummins,KW; Wilzbach,MA; Gates,DM; Perry,JB; Taliaferro,WB 1989 Shredders and riparian vegetation. BioScience, 39(1), 24-30. PDF
Klapálek,F 1905 Conspectus Plecopterorum Bohemiae. Casopis Ceskoslovenské Spolecnosti Entomologické 2: 27-32.
Describes the Stonefly family Leuctridae for the first time.
Kondratieff,BC and Baumann,RW 2002 A review of the stoneflies of Colorado with description of a new species of Capnia (Plecoptera: Capniidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 128 3, 385-401.
Pennack,RW and Ward,JV 1986 Interstital faunal communities of the hyporheic and adjacent groundwater biotopes of a Colorado mountain stream. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Suppl. 74(3) 356-396.
Ricker,WE and Ross,HH 1969 The genus Zealeuctra and its position in the family Leuctridae (Plecoptera: Leuctridae). Canad. J. Zool. 47: 1113-1127.
Shepard,WD and Baumann,RW 1995 Calileuctra, a new genus, and two new species of stoneflies from California (Plecoptera: Leuctridae). Great Basin Natur. 55: 124-133.
Stark,BP; Kyzar,JW 2000 Systematics of nearctic Paraleuctra with description of a new genus (Plecoptera: Leuctridae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 144 1, 119-135. PDF
Stark,BP; Szczytko,SW; Baumann,RW 1986 North American stoneflies (Plecoptera): systematics, distribution, and taxonomic references. Great Basin Naturalist 46, 383-397.
Stewart,KW and Stark,BP 2002 Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera. 2nd edition The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio. 510 pages.
Zwick,P 2006 New family characters of larval Plecoptera, with an analysis of the Chloroperlidae: Paraperlinae. Aquatic Insects, 28:13-22.
Abstract: " Larval structures diagnostic of several Plecoptera families, subfamilies or genera are described and illustrated. They concern the following: distinction of larval Leuctridae from Capniidae; an additional apomorphy of Nemouridae; a synapomorphy of Perlidae and Perlodidae; monophyly of each of the two subfamilies of Chloroperlidae, and the generic limits among Chloroperlidae: Paraperlinae. Paraperla lepnevae Zhiltzova is transferred to Utaperla. Some comments on Notonemouridae are included."
Brown,WS 2005. Plecoptera or Stoneflies of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA