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Stoneflies - Plecoptera: Taeniopterygidae of Gunnison County, Colorado

Doddsia occidentalis Western Willowfly

(Banks 1900)
Updated 20 Sept 2018

Description

This is a monotypic genus (a genus with only one species), endemic to western North America. Adults have 2 ocelli and wings mottled like Zapada (Baumann et al 1977). Immature larvae are indistinguishable from Taenionema pallidum.

Habitat

Commonly found at high elevations above 3000 meters in creeks and small rivers in heavily forested areas.

Life History

Adults emerge from February to May. Nymphs are shredders and eat leaves that have fallen into the stream.

Locations Collected

Spring Creek (Stark et al 1973)

Notes

Originally described as Taeniopteryx occidentalis. Referred to as Brachyptera (subgenus Doddsia) occidentalis in Stark et al (1973).

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References

Banks,N 1900 New genera and species of nearctic Neuropteroid insects. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 26:239-259.
     Described as Taeniopteryx occidentalis.


Baumann,RW, Gaufin,AR and Surdick,RF 1977 The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 31, 1-208.
     Quote from page 50: "Nymphs are found in small rivers or streams at fairly high elevations. The adults emerge from February to May. "

Carlisle,DM and Clements,WH 2003 Growth and secondary production of aquatic insects along a gradient of Zn contamination in Rocky Mountain streams. Journal North American Benthological Society 22(4), 582-597. Abstract and entire paper
     "Early instars of Taenionema pallidum and Doddsia occidentalis (subfamily Brachypterinae:Taeniopterygidae), were indistinguishable, so these species were lumped because they had similar life histories and growth patterns. -snip-- Production of Taenionema pallidum/Doddsia occidentalis was not statistically different among reference and low Zn streams, but these species were absent from the intermediate and high Zn streams."

Carter,JL; Fend,SV and Kennelly,SS 1996 The relationships among three habitat scales and stream benthic invertebrate community structure. Freshwater Biology, 35(1)109-124. PDF
     The authors found D. occidentalis in "small high gradient streams in narrow, steep-sided valleys. They had a mean altitude of 1009m, were heavily forested (95%) and had the highest canopy cover (72%)."

Duffield,RM and Nelson,CH 1998 Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the diet of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchell) in Libby Creek, Wyoming, USA. Hydrobiologia 380, 59-65.
     Although collected as adults in the streamside vegetation, Doddsia occidentalis was not found in the stomach contents of the trout living in the stream.

Jacobi,GZ and Baumann,RW 1983 Winter stoneflies (Plecoptera) of New Mexico. The Great Basin Naturalist 43(4) 585-591.
     This paper extends the range of D. occidentalis to New Mexico.

Kondratieff,BC and Baumann,RW 2002 A review of the stoneflies of Colorado with description of a new species of Capnia (Plecoptera: Capniidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 128 3, 385-401.
     Quote from page 392: " Nymphs can be very common in high elevations streams (3,000 m) throughout the Mountain region."

Needham,JG and Claassen,PW 1925 A Monograph of the Plecoptera of North America. Entomological Society of America, Lafayette, Indiana. 397 pages.

Stewart,KW and Stark,BP 2002 Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera. 2nd edition The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio. 510 pages.
     There is an excellent set of scanning electron photographs of D. occidentalis mouthparts on page 89, figure 5.4

Stark,BP; Oblad,BR; Gaufin,AR 1973 An annotated list of the Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Colorado Part I. Entomological News 84 9, 269-277.

Stewart,KW; Harper,PP 1996 Plecoptera. In: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 3rd ed. Eds: Merritt,RW; Cummins,KW Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 217-266.
     Illustration of larval hair fringe on page 226, figure 14.16

Stewart,KW and Stark,BP 2002 Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera. 2nd edition The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio. 510 pages.
     Illustrations of nymph on pages 230-231, figures 10.3-10.4


epiproct

nymph cerci

Wing