Home | Species List | Bibliography

Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae of Gunnison County, Colorado

Introducing the Mayfly genus Paraleptophlebia
Prong-gilled Mayflies, Blue Quill

Lestage 1917
Updated 24 February 2024
TSN 101187

Provisional Species List

Good Links

On this website:
Leptophlebiidae Introduction
Key to Leptophlebiidae Nymphs
Key to Leptophlebiidae Adults

Other Websites:


Allan,JD 1978a Diet of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchell) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.) in an alpine stream. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie Verhandlungen 20, 2045-2050.

Allan,JD 1978b Trout predation and the size composition of stream drift. Limnology and Oceanography 23 6, 1231-1237.

Allard,M and Moreau,G 1987 Effects of experimental acidification on a lotic macroinvertebrate community. Hydrobiologia, 144, pp.37-49.
     Abstract: "A three month experimental acidification was carried out on lotic bottom communities. Experiments were conducted under semi-natural conditions in plasticized wooden channels. Acidified communities (pH 4.0), with or without added aluminum, were compared with a reference community (pH 6.3-6.9). Added aluminum concentrations were respectively 0.2 and 0.4 mg 1-1 in experiments performed in 1982 and 1983. Water chemistry and taxonomic composition of the macroinvertebrate communities were monitored. Under acidified conditions, results were similar, with or without added aluminum. Mean abundances of all groups of organisms were lowered. Mayflies nearly completely disappeared from the acidified channels. The only organism not affected by the acidification was Microtendipes sp. Differences in the organism response were observed: Orthocladiinae (Rheocricotopus, Parametriocnemus, Corynoneura, Thienemanniella, Nanocladius, Cricotopus) and Ephemeroptera (Baetis, Habrophlebia, Habrophlebiodes, Paraleptophlebia, Ephemerella), especially early instars, were very sensitive to low pH, Chironomini and Tanypodinae were much less sensitive, while Tanytarsini were intermediate; Oligochaeta and Nematoda were difficult to classify, their response being different from one year to another. Organisms inhabiting the surface of artificial substrates disappeared very rapidly from the system, while those buried inside had a delayed reaction to acidification. Aluminum which was mainly in the monomeric form was not responsible for community modifications. Direct action of hydrogen ions through a physiological stress seems a more credible explanation. These results, induced by a continuous experimental acidification, suggest that if this small headwater stream undergoes acidification, the resulting invertebrate community will be very simplified, with only resistant species able to cope with the acid conditions."

del Rosario,RB; Betts,EA and Resh,VH 2002 Cow manure in headwater streams: tracing aquatic insect responses to organic enrichment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 21(2), pp.278-289.
     Abstract: "Cattle grazing in riparian areas can affect the structure of aquatic insect assemblages by adding nutrients (manure) to the stream, or by physically altering the habitat through trampling or foraging. Although cattle grazing is a well-described source of disturbance in stream habitats, the effects of manure inputs have not been previously isolated from effects of the physical disturbance. We traced the responses of aquatic insects representing 5 different functional-feeding groups to this introduced food source. We simulated manure enrichment from light grazing intensity and hypothesized that insects that feed directly on imported organic matter (shredders, filterers, gatherers) would have higher assimilation rates and densities than predators or periphyton-grazers in response to manure enrichment. We expected insect responses to increase with incremental enrichment over time, and decrease with increasing distance from the manure input. We introduced manure (composed of undigested C4 plant particles) from corn-fed cows into 7 streams that drain forests of C3 plants in Coastal and Sierra Nevada regions in California. Stable C isotope ratios indicated all feeding groups assimilated the isotopically distinct manure. In the Coastal streams, groups assimilating the most manure were gatherers (net increase of 21% towards C4 plant signal) and filterers (20%), whereas shredders (9%) assimilated the least. In the faster-flowing Sierran streams, assimilation by each group was ≤9%. Temporal increases in manure uptake were detected in the Coastal mayfly gatherer Paraleptophlebia pallipes, suggesting increased manure assimilation over time. Manure uptake by insects was spatially localized within 3 m downstream of the site of manure input. Densities of all 6 genera representing 5 functional-feeding groups were not significantly altered in response to manure enrichment. However, chironomids increased >5-fold in densities after 4 wk of enrichment. The composition of chironomid genera did not shift, and insect taxa richness in the enriched treatments did not change in response to manure enrichment. In our simulation of enrichment effects, which approximated low-density grazing of 6 cows visiting each stream reach weekly for 8 wk, we found that in the absence of physical disturbances from cattle grazing, manure is an important food source for gatherers in particular, and elicited responses from chironomids that are characteristic of organic enrichment."

DeWalt,RE; Stewart,KW; Moulton,SR; Kennedy,JH 1994 Summer emergence of mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies from a Colorado mountain stream. Southwestern Naturalist 39 3, 249-256.

Eaton AE. 1883-1888 A revisional monograph of recent Ephemeridae or mayflies. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Second Series, Zoology 3:1-352, 65 pl.

Harper,F and Harper,PP 1986 An annotated key to the adult males of the northwestern Nearctic species of Paraleptophlebia Lestage (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) with the description of a new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology64: 1460-1468.

Lestage,J-A. 1917 Contribution à l'étude des larves de Éphémères paléarctiques. Annales de Biologie Lacustre 8(3-4):213-458. Abstract

Lugo-Ortiz,CR; McCafferty,WP 1995 Annotated inventory of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Arizona. Entomological News 106 3, 131-140.

Mangum,FA and Madrigal,JL 1999 Rotenone effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Strawberry River, Utah: a five-year summary. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 14(1), 125-135. PDF
     Discussed as Paraleptophlebia sp. Quote from page 131: " An example of a resistant nymph is Paraleptophlebia sp. At most stations on the Strawberry River, its numbers remained consistently highbefore, during and after the rotenone application. This genus was observed to be tolerant to rotenone by Engstrom-Heg et al. (1978); they also found the caddisfly Hydropsyche sp. was tolerant to rotenone. We observed the same for Hydropsyche sp in the Strawberry River and suggest that instream macrophytes could provide the needed oxygen or advantage for survival of this and other benthic species. " Quote from page 133: "Some of the taxa such as Tipula sp. and Paraleptophlebia sp. which were relatively obscure in diverse pre-rotenone communiites became dominant survivors in post-rotenone communities. "

McCafferty,WP; Durfee,RS and Kondratieff,BC 1993 Colorado Mayflies (Ephemeroptera):An annotated inventory. Southwestern Naturalist 38(3):252-274.
     Source of Paraleptophlebia Species List for Gunnison County.

Mebane,CA; Schmidt,TS; Miller,JL and Balistrieri,LS 2020 Bioaccumulation and toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc and their mixtures to aquatic insect communities. Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 39(4) 812-833. PDF

NAWQA National Water-Quality Assessment database said this species was in their samples from Gunnison County. Searched 1Sept2005.

Peckarsky,BL 1980 Influence of detritus on colonization of stream invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37, 957-963.

Peckarsky,BL 1983 Biotic interactions or abiotic limitations? A model of lotic community structure. In: Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Eds: Fontaine III,Thomas D; Bartell,Steven M Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 303-323.

Peckarsky,BL 1986 Colonization of natural substrates by stream benthos. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43, 700-709.

Pennack,RW and Ward,JV 1986 Interstital faunal communities of the hyporheic and adjacent groundwater biotopes of a Colorado mountain stream. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Suppl. 74 3, 356-396.
     They found Paraleptophlebia sp. nymphs in the hyporheic zone of the South Platte river in the Front Range of Colorado at 1863 meters elevation.

Randolph,RP; McCafferty,WP 1996 First larval descriptions of two species of Paraleptophlebia (Ephemeroptera:Leptophlebiidae). American Midland Naturalist 107 4, 225-229.

Wang,TQ; McCafferty,WP 1996 New diagnostic characters for the mayfly family Baetidae (Ephemeroptera). Entomological News 107 2, 207-212.

Ward,JV; Stanford,JA 1990 Ephemeroptera of the Gunnison River, Colorado, USA. In: Mayflies and Stoneflies. Ed: Campbell,IC Kluwer Academic Publishers,, 215-220.

Wipfli,MS; Merritt,RW 1994 Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on nontarget benthic insects through direct and indirect exposure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13 2, 190-205.

Zuellig,RE; Kondratieff,BC; Rhodes,HA 2002 Benthos recovery after an eposodic sediment release into a Colorado Rocky Mountain river. Western North American Naturalist 62 1, 59-72.

Brown,WS 2004 Mayflies or Ephemeroptera of Gunnison County, Colorado, USA