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Ephemeroptera of Gunnison County, Colorado

Introduction to the Mayfly family Ephemerellidae
Crawler Mayflies, Spiny Crawler Mayflies

Updated Twosday 2/22/2022 :-)
TSN 101232
These two species of Drunella were caught and released ;-) from West Brush Creek in early August 2008. The top one is Drunella grandis and the lower animal is Drunella doddsii.

Provisional Species List

Good Links

On this website:
Drunella Introduction
Ephemerella Introduction

Other Websites:
Photos of Ephemerellidae nymph from many angles http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/science/biology/Invertebrate_key/Ephemeroptera/ Ephemeroptera_Emphemerellidae_thumb.htm

Adult Ephemerellidae key from The Aquatic Insects of Michigan by Ethan Bright http://insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/~ethanbr/aim/Keys/Ephemeroptera/id_eom_ephemerellidae.html


Allan,JD 1981 Determinants of diet of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a mountain stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38, 184-192. PDF

Allan,JD 1985 The production ecology of Ephemeroptera in a Rocky Mountain stream. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie Verhandlungen 22, 3233-3237.

Allan,JD 1987 Macroinvertebrate drift in a Rocky Mountain stream. Hydrobiologia 144, 261-268.

Allen,RK 1984 A new classification of the subfamily Ephemerellinae and the description of a new genus. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 60, 245-247.

Allen RK; Edmunds Jr GF. 1959 A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). I. The subgenus Timpanoga. Canadian Entomologist 91:51-58. PDF

Allen,RK and Edmunds,GF 1962 A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). V. The subgenus Drunella in North America. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 3, 147-179. PDF

Allen RK; Edmunds GF Jr. 1963 A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). VI. The subgenus Serratella in North America. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 56:583-600. PDF

Ball,SL; Hebert,PDN; Burian,SK; Webb,JM 2005 Biological identification of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) using DNA barcodes. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24 3, 508-524.

Balistrieri,LS; Mebane,CA and Schmidt,TS 2020 Time-dependent accumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn in mayfly and caddisfly larvae in experimental streams: Metal sensitivity, uptake pathways, and mixture toxicity. Science of the Total Environment, 732. html
     Abstract: "Conceptual and quantitative models were developed to assess time-dependent processes in four sequential experimental stream studies that determined abundances of natural communities of mayfly and caddisfly larvae dosed with single metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) or multiple metals (Cd + Zn, Co + Cu, Cu + Ni, Cu + Zn, Ni + Zn, Cd + Cu + Zn, Co + Cu + Ni, Cu + Ni + Zn). Metal mixtures contained environmentally relevant metal ratios found in mine drainage. Free metal ion concentrations, accumulation of metals by periphyton, and metal uptake by four families of aquatic insect larvae were either measured (Brachycentridae) or predicted (Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae, Hydropsychidae) using equilibrium and biodynamic models. Toxicity functions, which included metal accumulations by larvae and metal potencies, were linked to abundances of the insect families. Model results indicated that mayflies accumulated more metal than caddisflies and the relative importance of metal uptake by larvae via dissolved or dietary pathways highly depended on metal uptake rate constants for each insect family and concentrations of metals in food and water. For solution compositions in the experimental streams, accumulations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in larvae occurred primarily through dietary uptake, whereas uptake of dissolved metal was more important for Co and Ni accumulations. Cd, Cu, and Ni were major contributors to toxicity in metal mixtures and for metal ratios examined. Our conceptual approach and quantitative results should aid in designing laboratory experiments and field studies that evaluate metal uptake pathways and metal mixture toxicity to aquatic biota."

Barber-James,HM; Gattolliat,J; Sartori,M and MD Hubbard 2008 Global diversity of mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1) 339-350. DOI:10.1007/s10750-007-9028-y Abstract and Full Text

Chaika,V; Pikula,K; Vshivkova,T; Zakharenko,A; Reva,G; Drozdov,K; Vardavas,AI; Stivaktakis,PD; Nikolouzakis,TK; Stratidakis,AK and Kokkinakis,MN 2020 The toxic influence and biodegradation of carbon nanofibers in freshwater invertebrates of the families Gammaridae, Ephemerellidae, and Chironomidae. Toxicology Reports, 7, pp.947-954. PDF
     Abstract: "Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are widely used in consumer products today. In this study, we assessed the effects of CNFs on the digestive system of three freshwater invertebrate species (Gammaridae, Ephemerellidae, and Chironomidae). The aquatic insects Diamesa sp., Drunella cryptomeria, and Gammarus suifunensis were incubated with the CNFs at the concentration of 100 mg/L during the 7-days period. Histological examination of the whole specimens and the longitudinal sections revealed no toxic effects of CNFs. However, a noticeable change in the structure of the CNFs accumulated in the intestines of the aquatic insects was found by Raman spectroscopy. The registered decrease in the relative proportion of amorphous carbon included in the CNF sample was found in the intestines of Diamesa sp. and D. cryptomeria. The registered effect can indicate a biodegradation of amorphous carbon in the digestive tract of these two insect species. In contrast, the decrease of highly structured carbons and the decrease of G-bonds intensity were registered in the digestive tract of G. suifunensis. This observation demonstrates the partial biodegradation of CNFs in the digestive tract of G. suifunensis."

Clubb,RW; Gaufin,AR; Lords,JL 1975 Acute cadmium toxicity studies upon nine species of aquatic insects. Environmental Research 9, 332-341.

Colburn,T 1982 Measurement of low levels of molybdenum in the environment by using aquatic insects. 29, 422-428.

Dodds GS and Hisaw FL. 1925. Ecological studies on aquatic insects. IV. Altitudinal range and zonation of mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies in the Colorado Rockies. Ecology 6(4)380-390. Abstract PDF

Edmunds Jr.,GF; Jensen,SL; Berner,L 1976 The Mayflies of North and Central America. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 330 pages pages.

Hawkins,CP 1985 Food habits of species of ephemerellid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Insecta) in streams of Oregon. American Midland Naturalist 113(2) 343-352. PDF
     Abstract: " Data on food habits were obtained for 20 species in the mayfly family Ephemerellidae. Diet of a species often varied with site, habitat and size, but such variation did not completely mask differences among species. Adaptive radiation in diet is relatively great in this family, but species showed no distinct groupings when classified either on a functional basis or by traditional trophic categories."

Jacobus,LM and McCafferty,WP 2003 Revisionary contributions to North American Ephemerella and Serratella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 111:174-193. PDF
     Abstract: "The study of population variability and the reexamination of type material of certain Ephemerellidae species has revealed changes in status and new synonyms. Ephemerella dorothea Needham, 1908 [=E. infrequens McDunnough, 1924, new synonym, =E. mollitia Seemann, 1927, new synonym] is divided into two subspecies: E. d. dorothea, new status, and E. d. infrequens new status [=E. mollitia, new synonym]. New synonyms were discovered for the following: Ephemerella excrucians Walsh, 1862 [=E. inermis Eaton, 1884, new synonym, =E. argo Burks, 1947, new synonym, =E. crenula Allen and Edmunds, 1965, new synonym, =E. lacustris Allen and Edmunds, 1965, new synonym, =E. rossi Allen and Edmunds, 1965, new synonym, =E. rama Allen, 1968, new synonym], E. invaria Walker, 1853 [=E. rotunda Morgan, 1911, new synonym, =E. vernalis Banks, 1914, new synonym, =E. feminina Needham, 1924, new synonym, =E. fratercula McDunnough, 1925, new synonym, =E. inconstans Traver, 1932, new synonym, =E. choctawhatchee Berner, 1946, new synonym, =E. simila Allen and Edmunds, 1965, new synonym, =E. floripara McCafferty, 1985, new synonym], E. mucronata (Bengtsson), 1909 [=E. moffatae Allen, 1977, new synonym], Serratella micheneri (Traver), 1934 [=E. altana Allen, 1968, new synonym], S. serrata (Morgan), 1911 [=S. sordida (McDunnough), 1925, new synonym, =S. carolina (Berner and Allen), 1961, new synonym, =S. spiculosa (Berner and Allen), 1961, new synonym], and S. tibialis."

Jacobus, LM and McCafferty, WP 2008 Revision of Ephemerellidae genera (Ephemeroptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 134: 185-274. PDF

Kiffney,PM; Clements,WH 1994 Effects of heavy metals on a macroinvertebrate assemblage from a Rocky Mountain stream in experimental microcosms. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13 4, 511-523.

Knopp,M; Cormier,R 1997 Mayflies: An anglers study of trout water Ephemeroptera. Lyons Press, Guilford, CT. 366 pages.

Liegeois,M; Sartori,M and Schwander,T 2019 Extremely widespread parthenogenesis and a trade-off between alternative forms of reproduction in mayflies (Ephemeroptera). BioRxiv, 841122. PDF
     Abstract: "Studying alternative forms of reproduction in natural populations is of fundamental importance for understanding the costs and benefits of sex. Mayflies are one of the few animal groups where sexual reproduction co-occurs with different types of parthenogenesis, providing ideal conditions for identifying benefits of sex in natural populations. Here, we establish a catalogue of all known mayfly species capable of reproducing by parthenogenesis, as well as mayfly species unable to do so. Overall, 1.8% of the described species reproduce parthenogenetically, which is an order of magnitude higher than reported in other animal groups. This frequency even reaches 47.8% if estimates are based on the number of studied rather than described mayfly species. In terms of egg-hatching success, sex is a more successful strategy than parthenogenesis, and we found a trade-off between the efficiency of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction across species. This means that improving the capacity for parthenogenesis may come at the cost of being less able to reproduce sexually, even in facultative parthenogens. Such a trade-off can help explain why facultative parthenogenesis is extremely rare among animals despite its potential to combine the benefits of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction. We argue that parthenogenesis is frequently selected in mayflies in spite of this probable trade-off because their typically low dispersal ability and short and fragile adult life may frequently generate situations of mate limitation in females. Mayflies are currently clearly underappreciated for understanding the benefits of sex under natural conditions."

Lugo-Ortiz,CR; McCafferty,WP 1995 Annotated inventory of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Arizona. Entomological News 106 3, 131-140.

Magnum,FA; Winget,RN 1991 Environmental profile of Drunella (Eaton) doddsi (Needham) (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). Journal of Freshwater Ecology 6 1, 11-22.

Magnum,FA; Winget,RN 1993 Environmental profile of Drunella grandis Eaton (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae) in the Western United States. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8 2, 133-140.

McCafferty,WP; Wang,T-Q 1994 Phylogenetics and the classification of the Timpanoga complex (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13 4, 569-579.

McCafferty,WP; Wang,T-Q 2000 Phylogenetic systematics of the major lineages of Pannote mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Pannota). Transactions of American Entomological Society 126 1, 9-101.

Peckarsky,BL 1987b Mayfly cerci as defense against stonefly predation: deflection and detection. Oikos 48 2, 161-170.

Peckarsky,BL 1988 Why predaceous stoneflies do not aggregate with their prey. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie Verhandlungen 23, 2135-2140.

Peckarsky,BL 1991 Is there a coevolutionary arms race between predators and prey? A case study with stoneflies and mayflies. Advances in Ecology 1, 167-180.

Peckarsky,BL 1996 Alternative predator avoidance syndromes of stream-dwelling mayfly larvae. Ecology 77 6, 1888-1905.

Peckarsky,BL; Cowan,CA 1995 Microhabitat and activity periodicity of predatory stoneflies and their mayfly prey in a western Colorado stream. Oikos 74 3, 513-521.

Pennuto,CM and deNoyelles Jr,F 1993 Behavioral responses of Drunella coloradensis (Ephemeroptera) nymphs to short-term pH reductions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50, 2692-2697.

Poff,NLeR; Wellnitz,T; Monroe,JB 2003 Redundancy among three herbivorous insects across an experimental current velocity gradient. Oecologia 134, 262-269.

Stanford,JA; Ward,JV 1985 The effects of regulation on the limnology of the Gunnison River: A North American case history. In: Regulated Rivers. Eds: Lillehammer,A; Saltveit,S Universitetsforlaget As., Oslo, Norway, 467-480.

Staniczek,AH; Godunko,RJ and Kluge,NJ 2018 Fossil record of the mayfly family Ephemerellidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), with description of new species and first report of Ephemerellinae from Baltic amber. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 16(15), pp.1319-1335. PDF

Walley GS. 1930. Review of Ephemerella nymphs of western North America (Ephemeroptera). Canadian Entomologist 62(1):12-20, pl. 2-3. PDF

Ward,JV; Stanford,JA 1990 Ephemeroptera of the Gunnison River, Colorado, USA. In: Mayflies and Stoneflies. Ed: Campbell,IC Kluwer Academic Publishers,, 215-220.

Waters,TF; Crawford,GW 1973 Annual production of a stream mayfly population: a comparison of methods. Limnology and Oceanography 18 2, 286-296.

Winget,RN 1993 Habitat partitioning among three species of Ephemerelloidea. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8 3, 227-234.

Brown,WS 2005 Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Gunnison County, Colorado

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