Ephemeroptera: Baetidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Callibaetis ferrugineus hageni Eaton, 1885
Speckled Wing Dun
Updated 5 January 2019
This female has been laying eggs, you can tell by the split near the back of her abdomen. After living much longer than most Baetid mayflies, she is able to lay eggs that hatch immediately. The fancy word for that is ovoviviparity.
On this website:
Introduction to Baetidae
Caudill, CC 2002 Metapopulation biology of the mayfly Callibaetis ferrugineus hageni in high elevation beaver ponds. Cornell University Ph.D. Thesis. PDF
The author worked in Beaver Ponds in the Upper East River Valley near the Rocky Mountain Biological Lab. Abstract: "Organisms live in spatially complex environments, and many species persist as regional metapopulations, where dispersal among local subpopulations occupying habitat "patches" may strongly influence ecological and evolutionary processes. Three generations of the mayfly Callibaetis ferrugineus hageni were studied in a beaver pond metapopulation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The biology of adults, and patterns of larval abundance, recruitment, development, and behavior were examined to determine how trout predators, larval behavior within ponds, and adult dispersal among ponds interact to influence individual mayfly fitness and metapopulation dynamics.
Adult female size was strongly associated with potential fitness (fecundity). Females became sexually receptive one stage sooner than most mayflies (subimago stage), which may influence male swarming behavior and longevity. In males, there was no clear relationship between size and mating success. Males swarmed at their natal pond, while females frequently dispersed among ponds. Females did not avoid ovipositing in ponds with trout.
Patterns of oviposition, larval recruitment, and adult emergence revealed demographic sources and sinks in the metapopulation. To test whether trout negatively impacted pond quality, trout densities were manipulated and pond quality was inferred from local mayfly population growth rates. The results provided evidence that trout predators affected patch quality such that ponds with high trout densities were sinks, while ponds with low trout density were sources or sinks. Further, mayfly populations in ponds with high trout density would quickly go extinct without immigration from source ponds.
Surprisingly, larvae did not exhibit adaptive anti-predator avoidance behaviors or adaptive life history shifts in the presence of trout chemical cues. The lack of response to trout predators may result from conflicting selection pressure for rapid development in temporary fishless habitats. Additionally, frequent dispersal between fish and fishless habitat types may inhibit the evolution of traits adaptive to sink habitats.
Overall, the observed source-sink dynamic in the mayfly metapopulation resulted from a combination of adult dispersal, larval behavior, and the distribution of predators. Similar source-sink metapopulation dynamics may be common in other taxa with complex life cycles, especially insects with unselective oviposition or those with a "passive" dispersal stage (plants, marine invertebrates, and fishes)."
Caudill,CC 2003 Measuring dispersal in a metapopulation using stable isotope enrichment: high rates of sex-biased dispersal between patches in a mayfly metapopulation. Oikos 101 (3) 624-630. PDF
Caudill,CC 2003 Empirical evidence for nonselective recruitment and a source-sink dynamic in a mayfly metapopulation. Ecology 84:2119-2132. PDF
Caudill,CC 2005Trout predators and demographic sources and sinks in a mayfly metapopulation. Ecology 86:935-946. PDF
Caudill,CC and Peckarsky,BL 2003. Lack of appropriate behavioral or developmental responses by mayfly larvae to trout predators. Ecology 84:2133-2144. PDF
Check, GR 1982 A revision of the North American spcies of Callibaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, USA.
Detmer,TM; McCutchan Jr,JH and Lewis Jr,WM 2017 Predator driven changes in prey size distribution stabilize secondary production in lacustrine food webs. Limnology and Oceanography, 62(2)592-605. PDF
Dodds,GS 1923 Mayflies from Colorado: descriptions of certain species and notes on others. Transactions of American Entomological Society (69) 93-116. PDF
Discussed as Callibaetis fusca.
Dodds GS and Hisaw FL. 1925. Ecological studies on aquatic insects. IV. Altitudinal range and zonation of mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies in the Colorado Rockies. Ecology 6(4)380-390. Abstract PDF
Eaton,AE 1881 An announcement of new genera of the Ephemeridae. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 17:191-197.
Describes the mayfly genus Callibaetis for the first time.
Eaton AE. 1883-1888. A revisional monograph of recent Ephemeridae or mayflies. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Second Series, Zoology 3:1-352, 65 pl.
Described as Callibaetis hageni.
Edmunds Jr,GF 1945 Ovoviviparous mayflies of the genus Callibaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Entomological News 56:169-171. PDF
Gibbs,KE 1979 Ovoviviparity and nymphal seasonal movements of Callibaetis spp.(Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in a pond in southwestern Quebec. The Canadian Entomologist, 111(08), 927-931. PDF
Abstract: " Callibaetis ferrugineus (Walsh) and C. fluctuons (Walsh) nymphs moved from the shallow, peripheral area of a pond during the late summer and autumn to the deeper water where they overwintered. In the spring they returned to the peripheral area where they were found throughout the summer. C. ferrugineus and C. fluctuans are ovoviviparous. A relationship between ovoviviparity and seasonal movements of the nymphs is suggested. "
Harper,PP and Harper,F 1997 Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of the Yukon. Pp. 152-167 In: H.V. Danks and J.A. Downes, eds. Insects of the Yukon. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Jensen,SL 1966 The Mayflies of Idaho (Ephemeroptera). M.S. Thesis, University of Utah, Utah. 364 p.
Discussed as Callibaetis coloradensis.
Komnick,H and Abel,JH Jr. 1971 Location and fine structure of the chloride cells and their porous plates in Callibaetis spec. (Ephemeropteraa, Baetidae). PDF
Komnick,H; Rhees,RW and Abel,JH 1972 The function of ephemerid chloride cells. Histochemical, autoradiographic and physiological studies with radioactive chloride on Callibaetis. Cytobiologie 5:65-82. PDF
They worked on Callibaetis collected near Fort Collins, CO. By labeling chloride solutions and exposing Calibaetis larvae to various salt solutions, they established that Callibaetis can absorb chloride from a hypotonic solution which is more dilute than their body fluids. This is important for osmoregulation in a freshwater environment.
Komnick,H and Stockem,W 1973 The porous plates of coniform chloride cells in mayfly larvae: high-resolution analysis and demonstration of solute pathways. Journal of Cell Science 12:665-681. PDF
Discusses C. hageni as C. coloradensis.
Lugo-Ortiz,CR; McCafferty,WP 1996 Contribution to the taxonomy of Callibaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in southwestern North America and Middle America. Aquatic Insects 18:1-9. PDF
McCafferty,WP 1996a Emendations to the Callibaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) of South America. Entomological News 107 4, 230-232. PDF
McCafferty,WP 1996b The Ephemeroptera species of North America and index to their complete nomenclature. Transactions of American Entomological Society 122 1, 1-54. PDF
Synonymizes or merges the name Callibaetis americanus with Callibaetis ferrigineus hageni. Quote from the abstract on page 1: "Changes to the list are as follows: Callibaetis ferrigineus hageni Eaton, 1885, new status [=C. americanus Banks, 1900, new synonym] and Callibaetis ferrigineus ferrigineus (Walsh), 1862, new status, are western and eastern subspecies, respectively" The website http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/research/mayfly/basis.html updates this publication.
McCafferty,WP; Durfee,RS; Kondratieff,BC 1993 Colorado mayflies (Ephemeroptera): an annotated inventory. Southwestern Naturalist 38 3, 252-274. PDF
McCafferty,WP and Provonsha, AV The Mayflies of North AmericaSpecies List (Version 8Feb2011)
Here is the geographic range and synonyms:
Callibaetis ferrugineus hageni Eaton, 1885 [CAN:FN,NW;USA:FN,NW,SW]
* Baetis tessellata Hagen, 1861 (hom.: B. tessellata Walker, 1853)
* Callibaetis americanus Banks, 1900 (syn.)
* Callibaetis carolus Traver, 1935 (syn.)
* Callibaetis coloradensis Banks, 1900 (syn.)
* Callibaetis evergreenensis Thew, 1959 (syn.)
* Callibaetis fusca Dodds, 1923 (syn., spell.)
* Callibaetis fuscus Dodds, 1923 (syn.)
* Callibaetis hageni Eaton, 1885 (orig.)
* Callibaetis hebes Upholt, 1936 (syn.)
* Callibaetis nigritus Banks, 1918 (syn.)
* Callibaetis tessellatus (Hagen), 1861 (hom.comb.)
Newell,RL and Hossack,BR 2009 Large, wetland-associated mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Glacier National Park, Montana. Western North American Naturalist, 69(3) 335-342. Abstract and PDF
Poff,NL; Olden,JD; Viera,NKM; Finn,DS; Simmons,MP; Kondratieff,BC 2006 Functional trait niches of American lotic insects: traits-based ecological applications in light of phylogenetic relationships. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25 4, 730-755.
Here are the traits for this species from the Appendix:
||Bi or multivoltine - more than 1 generation/yr
|Synchronization of emergence
|Adult life span
||Less than 1 week
|Adult ability to exit
|Ability to survive dessication
||Less than 1km flight before laying eggs
|Adult flying strength
||Weak - cannot fly into light breeze
|Occurance in drift
||Rare (catastrophic only)
|Maximum crawling rate
|| Low - less than 100cm/hour
||None (free ranging)
||None (soft -bodied forms)
|Size at maturity
||Small (less than 9mm)
Wang,TQ; McCafferty,wp 1996 New diagnostic characters for the mayfly family Baetidae (Ephemeroptera). Entomological News 107 2, 207-212. PDF
A salamanders view of recently emerged Callibaetis
adult floating on the surface of a pond.